The, words, ‘When thou awakest,’ in Pro_6:22 are Messianically applied in Siphré on Dt (ed. Friedmann, p. 74b).
In Midr. on Ecc_1:9 it is shown at great length that the Messiah would re-enact all the miracles of the past.
The last clause of Ecc_1:11 is applied to the days of the Messiah in the Targum.
Ecc_7:24 is thus paraphrased in the Targum: ‘Behold, it is remote from the sons of men that they should know what was done from the beginning of the world, but a mystery is the day of death – and the day when shall come King Messiah, who can find it out by his wisdom?’
In the Midr. on Ecc_11:8 it is noted that, however many years a man might study, his learning would be empty before the teaching of Messiah. In the Midr. on Ecc_12:1 it is noted that the evil days are those of the woes of Messiah.
Canticles. Here we have first the Talmudic passage (Sheb. 35b) in which the principle is laid down, that whenever throughout that book Solomon is named, except in Ecc_8:12, it applies, not to Solomon, but to Him Who was His peace (there is here a play on these words, and on the name Solomon).
To Son_1:8 the Targum makes this addition: ‘They shall be nourished in the captivity, until the time that I shall send to them the King Messiah, Who will feed them in quietness.’
So also on Son_1:17 the Targum contrasts the Temple built by Solomon with the far superior Temple to be built in the days of the Messiah, of which the beams were to be made of the cedars of Paradise.
Son_2:8, although applied by most authorities to Moses, is by others referred to the Messiah (Shir haShirim R., ed. Warsh., p. 15a, about the middle; Pesiqta, ed. Buber, p. 47b). Son_2:9 is Messianically applied in Pesiqta, ed. Buber, p. 49, a and b.
The same may be said of Son_2:10; while in connection with Son_2:12, in similar application, Isa_52:7 is quoted.
In connection with Son_2:13, in the same Midrash (p. 17a), Rabbi Chija bar Abba speaks of a great matter as happening close to the days of the Messiah, viz., that the wicked should be destroyed, quoting in regard to it Isa_4:3.
Son_3:11, ‘the day of his espousals.’ In Yalkut on the passage (vol. 2 p. 178d) this is explained: ‘the day of the Messiah, because the Holy One, blessed be His Name, is likened to a bridegroom as the bridegroom rejoiceth over the bride”’ – and ‘the day of the gladness of his heart,’ as the day when the Sanctuary is rebuilt, and Jerusalem is redeemed.
On Son_4:5 the Targum again introduces the twofold Messiah, the one the son of David, and the other the son of Ephraim.
Son_4:16. According to one opinion in the Midrash (p. 25b, line 13 from the bottom) this applies to the Messiah, Who comes from the north, and builds the Temple, which is in the south. See also Bemidbar R. 13, p. 48b.
On Son_5:10 Yalkut remarks that He is white to Israel, and red to the Gentiles, according to Isa_63:2.
On Son_6:10 Yalkut (vol. 2 p. 184b) has some beautiful observations, first, likening Israel in the wilderness, and God’s mighty deeds there, to the morning; and then adding that, according to another view, this morning-light is the redemption of the Messiah: For as, when the morning rises, the darkness flees before it, so shall darkness fall upon the kingdoms of this world when the Messiah comes. And yet again, as the sun and moon appear, so will the Kingdom of the Messiah also appear – the commentation going on to trace further illustrations.
Son_7:6. The Midrash thus comments on it (among other explanations): How fair in the world to come, how pleasant in the days of the Messiah!
On Son_7:13, the Targum has it: ‘When it shall please God to deliver His people from captivity, then shall it be said to the Messiah: The time of captivity is past, and the merit of the just shall be sweet before Me like the odour of balsam.
Similarly on Son_8:1, the Targum has it: ‘And at that time shall the Messiah be revealed to the congregation of Israel, and the children of Israel shall say to Him, Come and be as a brother to us, and let us go up to Jerusalem and there suck with thee the meaning of the Law, as an infant its mother’s breast.’
On Son_8:2 the Targum has it: ‘I will take Thee, O King Messiah, and make thee go up into my Temple, there Thou shalt teach me to tremble before the Lord, and to walk in his ways. There we shall hold the feast of leviathan, and drink the old wine, which has been kept in its grapes from the day the world was created, and of the pomegranates and of the fruits which are prepared for the just in the Garden of Eden.’
On Son_8:4 the Targum says ‘The King Messiah shall say: I adjure you, My people, house of Israel, why should you rise against the Gentiles, to go out of captivity, and why should you rebel against the might of Gog and Magog? Wait a little, till those nations are consumed which go up to fight against Jerusalem, and then shall the Lord of the world remember you, and it shall be His good will to set you free.’
Son_8:11 is applied Messianically in the Talmud (Shebhu. 35b), and so is Son_8:12 in the Targum.
(It should, however, be remarked that there are many other Messianic references in the comments on the Song of Solomon.)
Isa_1:25, Isa_1:26, is thus explained in the Talmud (Sanh. 58a): ‘The Son of David shall not come till all the judges and rulers in Israel shall have ceased.’
Similarly Isa_2:4 is Messianically interpreted in Shabb. 63a.
Isa_4:2 the Targum distinctly applies to the times of the Messiah.
Isa_4:4 has been already commented upon in our remarks on Gen_18:4, Gen_18:5, and again on Deu_23:11.
Isa_4:5 and Isa_4:6 are brought into connection with Israel’s former service in contributing to, and making the Tabernacle in the wilderness and it is remarked that in the latter days God would return it to them by covering them with a cloud of glory. This, in Yalkut (vol. 1 p. 99c), and in the Midrash on Psa_13:1-6, as also in that on Psa_16:9.
Isa_6:13 is referred in the Talmud (Keth. 112b) to Messianic times.
The reference of Isa_7:21 to Messianic times has already been discussed in our notes on Gen_18:7.
Isa_8:14 is also Messianically applied in the Talmud (Sanh. 38a).
Isa_9:6 is expressly applied to the Messiah in the Targum, and there is a very curious comment in Debarim R. 1 (ed. Warsh., p. 4a) in connection with a Haggadic discussion of Gen_43:14, which, however fanciful, makes a Messianic application of this passage – also in Bemidbar R. 11.
Isa_9:7, ‘Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end,’ has already been referred to in our comments on Num_6:26.
Isa_10:27 is in the Targum applied to the destruction of the Gentiles before the Messiah. Isa_10:34, is quoted in the Midrash on Lam_1:16, in evidence that somehow the birth of the Messiah was to be connected with the destruction of the Temple.
Isa 11, as will readily be believed, is Messianically interpreted in Jewish writings. Thus, to begin with, in the Targum on Isa_11:1 and Isa_11:6; in the Talmud (Jer. Berach. 5a and Sanh. 93b); and in a number of passages in the Midrashim. Thus, Isa_11:1 in Bereshith R. 85 on Gen_38:18, where also Psa_110:2 is quoted, and in Ber. R. 99, ed. Warsh., p. 178b. In Yalkut (vol. 1 p. 247d, near the top), where it is described how God had shown Moses all the spirits of the rulers and prophets in Israel, from that time forward to the Resurrection, it is said that all these had one knowledge and one spirit, but that the Messiah had one spirit which was equal to all the others put together, according to Isa_11:1.
On the Psa_11:2 see our remarks on Gen_1:2, while in Yalkut on Pro_3:19, Pro_3:20 (vol. 2 p. 133a) the verse is quoted in connection with Messianic times, when by wisdom, understanding, and knowledge the Temple will be built again. On that verse see also Pirq. d. R. El. 3.
On Isa_11:8 the Talmud (Sanh. 93b, lines 21 etc. from the top) has a curious explanation. After quoting Isa_11:2 as Messianic, it makes a play on the words, ‘of quick understanding,’ or ‘scent,’ as it might be rendered, and suggests that this word והריחו is intended to teach us that God has laden Him with commandments and sufferings like millstones (כריחיים). Immediately afterwards, from the expression ‘He shall not judge after the sight of His eyes, but reprove with equity for the meek of the earth,’ it is inferred that the Messiah knew the thoughts of the heart, and it is added that, as Bar Kokhabh was unable to do this, he was killed.
Isa_11:4, ‘he shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth,’ is Messianically applied in the Midrash on Psa_2:2, and in that on Rth_2:14 – also in Yalkut on Isa lx.
Isa_11:7 has been already noticed in connection with Exo_12:2.
On Isa_11:10 see our remarks on Gen_49:10 and Psa_21:1.
Isa_11:11 is Messianically applied in Yalkut (vol. 1 p. 31b and vol. 2 38a), as also in the Midrash on Psa_107:2.
Isa_11:12 is Messianically applied in that curious passage in the Midrash on Lam_1:2, where it is indicated that, as the children of Israel sinned from א to ת, so God would in the latter days comfort them from א to ת (i.e. through the whole alphabet), Scripture passages being in each case quoted.
The Messianic application of Isa_12:3 is sufficiently established by the ancient symbolic practice of pouring out the Water on the Feast of Tabernacles.
In connection with Isa_12:5 the Midrash on Psa_118:23 first speaks of the wonderment of the Egyptians when they saw the change in Israel from servitude to glory on their Exodus, and then adds, that the words were intended by the Holy Ghost to apply to the wonders of the latter days (ed. Warsh. p. 85b).
On Isa_14:2, see our comments on Gen_18:4, Gen_18:5.
Isa_14:29, IsaIsa_15:2, Isa_16:1, and Isa_16:5 are Messianically applied in the Targum.
Isa_18:5 is similarly applied in the Talmud (Sanh. 98a); and Isa_23:15 in Sanh. 99a.
Isa_21:11, Isa_21:12 is in Jer. Taan. 64a, and in Shem. R. 18, applied to the manifestation of the Messiah.
In Isa_23:8 the Midr. on Ecc_1:7 sees a curious reference to the return of this world’s wealth to Israel in Messianic days.
Isa_23:15 is Messianically applied in the Talmud (Sanh. 99a) where the expression ‘a king’ is explained as referring to the Messiah.
Isa_24:23 is Messianically applied in the curious passage in Bemidbar R. quoted under Gen_22:18; also in Bemidbar R. 13 (ed. Warsh. p. 51a).
The remarkable promise in Isa_25:8 is applied to the times of the Messiah in the Talmud (Moed Q. 28b), and in that most ancient commentary Siphra. (Yalkut i. p. 190d applies the passage to the world to come). But the most remarkable interpretation is that which occurs in connection with Isa_60:1 (Yalkut ii. 56c, line 16 from the bottom), where the passage (Isa_25:8) is, after an expostulation on the part of Satan with regard to the Messiah, applied to the casting into Gehenna of Satan and of the Gentiles. See also our remarks on Exo_12:2. In Debar. R. 2, Isa_25:8 is applied to the destruction of the Jetser ha-Ra and the abolishing of death in Messianic days; in Sham. R. 30 to the time of the Messiah.
Isa_25:9. Tanchuma on Deuteronomy opens with a record of how God would work all the miracles, which He had shown in the wilderness, in a fuller manner for Zion in the latter days, the last passage quoted in that section being Isa_25:9. (Tanchuma on Dt ed. Warsh. p. 99a, line 5 from the bottom).
Of Isa_26:19 there is Messianic application in the Midrash on Ecc_1:7.
On Isa_27:10 Sham. R. 1, and Tanchuma on Exo_2:5 (ed. Warsh. p. 64b) remark that, like Moses, the Messiah, Who would deliver His own from the worshippers of false gods, should be brought up with the latter in the land.
Isa_27:13 is quoted in the Talmud (Rosh. haSh. 11b) in connection with the future deliverance. So also in Yalkut. 1 p. 217d, and Pirqé de R. El. 100:31.
Isa_28:5 is thus paraphrased in the Targum: ‘At that time shall the Messiah of the Lord of hosts be a crown of joy.’
Isa_28:16 the Targum apparently applies to the Messiah. At least, so Rashi (on the passage) understands it.
Isa_30:18 is Messianically applied in Sanh. 97b; Isa_30:15 in Jer. Taan. i. l.
The expression in Isa_30:19, ‘he shall be very gracious unto thee,’ is applied to the merits of the Messiah in Yalkut on Zep_3:8 (p. 84c).
On Isa_30:25 see our remarks on Gen_18:4.
Isa_30:20 is applied to Messianic times in the Talmud (Pes. 68a, and Sanh. 91b), and similarly in Pirqé de R. El. 51, and Shemoth R. 50. So also in Ber. R. 12. See our remarks on Gen_2:4.
Isa_32:14, Isa_32:15. On this passage the Midrash on Lam_3:49 significantly remarks that it is one of the three passages in which mention of the Holy Ghost follows upon mention of redemption, the other two passage being Isa_60:22, followed by Isa_61:1, and Lam_3:49.
Isa_32:20. The first clause is explained by Tanchuma (Par. 1, ed. Warsh. p. 4a, first three lines) to apply to the study of the Law, and the second to the two Messiahs, the son of Joseph being likened to the ox, and the son of David to the ass, according to Zec_9:9; and similarly the verse is Messianically referred to in Deb. R. 6 (ed. Warsh. vol. 3 p. 15b), in a very curious play on the words in Deu_22:6, Deu_22:7, where the observance of that commandment is supposed to hasten the coming of King Messiah.
Isa_35:1. This is one of the passages quoted in Tanchuma on Deu_1:1 (ed. Warsh. p. 99a) as among the miracles which God would do to redeemed Zion in the latter days. So also is Isa_35:2.
Isa_25:5, Isa_25:6 is repeatedly applied to Messianic times. Thus, in Yalkut i. 78c, and 157a; in Ber. R. 95; and in the Midrash on Psa_146:8.
Isa_35:10 is equally applied to Messianic times in the Midrash on Psa_107:1, while at the same time it is noted that this deliverance will be accomplished by God Himself, and not either by Elijah, nor by the King Messiah. A similar reference occurs in Yalkut (vol. 2 p. 162d), at the close of the Commentary on the Book of Chronicles, where it is remarked that in this world the deliverance of Israel was accomplished by man, and was followed by fresh captivities, but in the latter or Messianic days their deliverance would be accomplished by God, and would no more be followed by captivity. See also Shemoth R. 15 and 23.
Isa_40:1 is one of the passages referred to in our note on Isa_11:12, and also on Isa_35:1.
The same remark applies to Isa_40:2 and Isa_40:3.
Isa_40:5 is also Messianically applied in Vayyikra R. 1; Yalk. 2 77b about the middle.
On Isa_40:10 Yalkut, in discussing Exo_32:6 (vol. 1 p. 108c) broaches the opinion, that in the days of the Messiah Israel would have a double reward, on account of the calamities which they had suffered, quoting Isa_40:10.
Isa_41:18 has been already noted in our remarks on Gen_13:4, Gen_13:5.
Isa_40:25 is Messianically applied in Bem. R. 13, p. 48b.
The expression ‘The first,’ in Isa_41:27, is generally applied to the Messiah; in the Targum, according to Rashi; in Bereshith R. 63; in Vayyikra R. 30; and in the Talmud (Pes. 5a); so also in Pesiqta (ed. Buber) p. 185b.
Isa_42:1 is applied in the Targum to the Messiah, as also in the Midrash on Psa_2:1-12; and in Yalkut 2 p. 104d. See also our comments on Psa_2:7.
On Isa_43:10, the Targum renders ‘My servant’ by ‘My servant the Messiah.’
The promise in Isa_45:22 is also among the future things mentioned in the Midrash on Lamentations, to which we have referred in our remarks on Isa_11:12.
Isa_49:8. There is a remarkable comment on this in Yalkut on the passage, to the effect that the Messiah suffers in every age for the sins of that generation, but that God would in the day of redemption repair it all (Yalk. 2 p. 52b).
Isa_49:9 is quoted as the words of the Messiah in Yalkut (vol. 2 p. 52b).
Isa_49:10 is one of the passages referred to in the Midrash on Lamentations, quoted in connection with Isa_11:12.
Isa_49:12 has already been noticed in our remarks on Exo_12:2.
From the expression ‘comfort’ in Isa_49:13, the Messianic title ‘Menachem’ is derived. Comp. the Midrash on Pro_19:21.
Isa_49:14 is Messianically applied in Yalkut 2 p. 52c.
Isa_49:21 is also one of the passages referred to in the Midrash on Lamentations, quoted under Isa_11:12.
On Isa_49:23 it is remarked in Vayyikra R. 27 (ed. Warsh. p. 42a), that Messianic blessings were generally prefigured by similar events, as, for example, the passage here quoted in the case of Nebuchadnezzar and Daniel.
A Messianic application of the same passage also occurs in Par. 33 and 36, as a contrast to the contempt that Israel experiences in this world.
The second clause of Isa_49:23 is applied to the Messiah in the Midrash on Psa_2:2, as to be fulfilled when the Gentiles shall see the terrible judgments.
Isa_49:26 is similarly applied to the destruction of the Gentiles in Vayyikra R. 33 (end).
Isa_51:12 is one of the passages referred to in the Midrash on Lamentations, quoted in our comments on Isa_11:12.
Isa_51:12 and Isa_51:17 are among the passages referred to in our remarks on Isa_25:9.
Isa_52:3 is Messianically applied in the Talmud (Sanh. 97b), while the last clause of Isa_52:2 is one of the passage quoted in the Midrash on Lamentations (see Isa_11:12).
The well-known Evangelic declaration in Isa_52:7 is thus commented upon in Yalkut. (vol. 2 p. 53c): In the hour when the Holy One, blessed be His Name, redeems Israel, three days before Messiah comes Elijah, and stands upon the mountains of Israel, and weeps and mourns for them, and says to them: Behold the land of Israel, how long shall you stand in a dry and desolate land? And his voice is heard from the world’s end to the world’s end, and after that it is said to them: Peace has come to the world, peace has come to the world, as it is said: How beautiful upon the mountains, etc. And when the wicked hear it, they rejoice, and they say one to the other: Peace has come to us. On the second day he shall stand upon the mountains of Israel, and shall say: Good has come to the world, good has come to the world, as it is written: That bringeth good tidings of good. On the third day he shall come and stand upon the mountains of Israel, and say: Salvation has come to the world, salvation had come to the world, as it is written: That publisheth salvation.
Similarly, this passage is quoted in Yalkut on Psa_121:1. See also our remarks on Son_2:13.
Isa_52:8 is one of the passages referred to in the Midrash on Lamentations quoted above, and frequently in other places as Messianic.
Isa_52:12 is Messianically applied in Shemoth R. 15 and 19.
Isa_52:13 is applied in the Targum expressly to the Messiah. On the words ‘He shall be exalted and extolled’ we read in Yalkut 2 (Par. 338, p. 53c, lines 7 etc. from the bottom): He shall be higher than Abraham, to whom applies Gen_14:22; higher than Moses, of whom Num_11:12 is predicated; higher than the ministering angels, of whom Eze_1:18 is said. But to Him there applies this in Zec_4:7 : ‘Who art thou, O great mountain?’ ‘And He was wounded for our transgressions, and bruised for our iniquities, and the chastisement of our peace was upon Him, and with His stripes we are healed.’ R. Huna says, in the name of R Acha: All sufferings are divided into three parts; one part goes to David and the Patriarchs, another to the generation of the rebellion (rebellious Israel), and the third to the King Messiah, as it is written (Psa_2:7), ‘Yet have I set My King upon My holy hill of Zion.’ Then follows a curious quotation from the Midrash on Samuel, in which the Messiah indicates that His dwelling is on Mount Zion, and that guilt is connected with the destruction of its walls.
In regard to Isa_53:1-12 we remember, that the Messianic name of ‘Leprous’ (Sanh. 98b) is expressly based upon, it. Isa_53:10 is applied in the Targum on the passage to the Kingdom of the Messiah.
Isa_53:5 is Messianically interpreted in the Midrash on Samuel (ed. Lemberg, p. 45a, last line), where it is said that all sufferings are divided into three parts, one of which the Messiah bore – a remark which is brought into connection with Rth_2:14. (See our comments on that passage.)
Isa_54:2 is expected to be fulfilled in Messianic times (Vayyikra R. 10).
Isa_54:5. In Shemoth R. 15 this is expressly applied to Messianic days.
Isa_54:11 is repeatedly applied to the Messianic glory, as, for example, in Shemoth R. 15. (See our comments on Exo_12:2.)
So is Isa_54:13, as in Yalkut (vol. 1 p. 78c); in the Midrash on Psa_21:1 and in other passages.
Isa_55:12 is referred to Messianic times, as in the Midrash on Psa_13:1-6.
Isa_56:1. See our comments on Exo_21:1.
Isa_56:7 is one of the passages in the Midrash on Lamentations which we have quoted under Isa_11:12.
On Isa_57:14 Bemidbar R. 15 (ed. Warsh. p. 64a) expresses a curious idea about the stumbling-block, as mystically the evil inclination, and adds that the promise applies to God’s removal of it in the world to come, or else it may be in Messianic days.
Isa_57:16 receives in the Talmud (Yeb. 62a and 63b) and in the Midr. on Ecc_1:6 the following curious comment: ‘The Son of David shall not come till all the souls are completed which are in the Guph’ – (i.e. the pre-existence of souls is taught, and that they are kept in heaven till one after another appears in human form, and that the Messiah is kept back till all these shall have appeared), proof of this being derived from Isa_57:16.
Similarly Isa_59:15 is applied to Messianic times in Sanh. 97a, and Midr. on Cant. ii. 13; and Isa_59:19 in Sanh. 98a.
Isa_59:17 is applied to Messianic times in Pesiqta, ed. Buber, p. 149a.
Isa_59:20 is one of the passages mentioned in the Midrash on Lamentations quoted above. (See Isa_11:12.)
Isa_59:19, Isa_59:20, is applied to Messianic times in Sanh. 98a. In Pesiqta 166b it is similarly applied, the peculiar form (plene) in which the word goel (Redeemer) is written being taken to indicate the Messiah as the Redeemer in the full sense.
Isa_60:1. This is applied in the Targum to Messianic times. Similarly, it is explained in Ber. R. i. with reference to Dan_2:2; in Ber. R. 2; and also in Bemidbar R. 15 and 21. In Yalkut we have some very interesting remarks on the subject. Thus (vol. 1 Par. 363, p. 99c), commenting on Exo_25:3 etc., in a very curious description of how God would in the world to come return to Israel the various things which they had offered for the Tabernacle, the oil is brought into connection with the Messiah, with reference to Psa_132:17 and Isa_60:1. Again, on p. 215c (at the commencement of the Parashah Behaalothekha) we have, first, a very curious comparison between the work of the Tabernacle and that of the six days of Creation, after which the question is put: Why Moses made seven lights, and Solomon seventy? To this the reply is given, that Moses rooted up seven nations before Israel, while Solomon reigned over all the seventy nations which, according to Jewish ideas, constitute the world. Upon this it is added, that God had promised, that as Israel had lighted for His glory the lights in the Sanctuary, so would He in the latter days fill Jerusalem with His glory, according to the promise in Isa_60:1, and also set up in the midst of it lights, according to Zep_1:12. Still more clearly is the Messianic interpretation of Isa 60 brought out in the comments in Yalkut on that chapter. One part of it is so curious that it may here find a place. After explaining that this light for which Israel is looking is the light of the Messiah, and that Gen_1:4 really referred to it, it is added that this is intended to teach us that (God looked forward to the age of the Messiah and His works before the Creation of the world, and that He hid that light for the Messiah and His generation under His throne of glory. On Satan’s questioning Him for whom that light was destined, the answer is: For Him Who in the latter days will conquer thee, and cover thy face with shame. On which Satan requests to see Him, and when he is shown Him, falls on his face and says: I confess that this is the Messiah Who will in the latter days be able to cast me, and all the Gentiles, into Gehenna according to Isa_25:8. In that hour all the nations will tremble, and say before God: Who is this into Whose hand we fall, what is His Name, and what is His purpose? On which God replies: This is Ephraim, the Messiah [the second Messiah, the son of Joseph]; My Righteousness is His Name. And so the commendation goes on to touch on Psa_89:23, Psa_89:24, and Psa_89:26, in a most deeply interesting, but which it would be impossible here fully to give (Yalkut, vol. 2 Par. 359, p. 56c). In col. d there are farther remarkable discussions about the Messiah, in connection with the wars in the days when Messiah should be revealed, and about Israel’s final safety. But the most remarkable passage of all, reminding us almost of the history of the Temptation, is that which reads as follows (line 22 etc. from the top): It is a tradition from our Rabbis that, in the hour when King Messiah comes, He stands on the roof of the Temple, and proclaims to them, that the hour of their deliverance has come, and that if they believed they would rejoice in the light that had risen upon them, as it is written (Isa_60:1), ‘Arise, shine, for thy light is come.’ This light would be for them alone, as it is written (Isa_60:2), ‘For darkness shall cover the earth.’ In that hour also would God take the light of the Messiah and of Israel, and all should walk in the light of Messiah and of Israel, as it is written (Isa_60:3), ‘The Gentiles shall come to thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising.’ And the kings of the nations should lick the dust from under the feet of the Messiah, and should all fall on their faces before Him and before Israel, and say: Let us be servants to Thee and to Israel. And so the passage goes on to describe the glory of the latter days. Indeed, the whole of this chapter may be said to be full of Messianic interpretations.
After this it will scarcely be necessary to say that Isa_60:2, Isa_60:3, and Isa_60:4 are similarly applied in the Midrashim. But it is interesting to notice that Isa_60:2 is specifically applied to Messianic times in the Talmud (Sanh. 99a), in answer to the question when the Messiah should come.
On Isa_60:4 the Midrash on Cant. i. 4, on the words ‘we will be glad and rejoice in thee,’ has the following beautiful illustration. A Queen is introduced whose husband and sons and sons- in-law go to a distant country. Tidings are brought to her: Thy sons are come back. On which she says: Cause for gladness have I, my daughters-in-law will rejoice. Next, tidings are brought her that her sons-in-law are coming, and she is glad that her daughters will rejoice. Lastly, tidings are brought: The king, thy husband, comes. On which she replies: This is indeed perfect joy, joy upon joy. So in the latter days would the prophets come, and say to Jerusalem: ‘Thy sons shall come from far’ (Isa_60:4), and she will say: What, gladness is this to me! – ‘and thy daughters shall be nursed at thy side; and again she will say: What gladness is this to me! But when they shall say to her (Zec_9:9): ‘Behold, thy king cometh unto thee; he is just, and having salvation; then shall Zion say: This indeed is perfect joy, as it is written (Zec_9:9), ‘Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion,’ and again (Zec_2:10), ‘Sing and rejoice, O daughter of Zion.’ In that hour she will say (Isa_61:10): ‘I will greatly rejoice in the Lord, my soul shall be joyful in my God.’
Isa_60:7 is Messianically applied in the Talmud (Abod. Sar. 24a).
Isa_60:8 is Messianically applied in the Midrash on Psa_48:13.
In connection with Isa_60:19 we read in Yalkut (vol. 1 p. 103b) that God said to Israel: In this world you are engaged (or busied) with the light for the Sanctuary, but in the world to come, for the merit of this light, I send you the King Messiah, Who is likened to a light, according to Psa_132:17 and Isa_60:19, ‘the Lord shall be unto thee an everlasting light.’
Isa_60:21 is thus alluded to in the Talmud (Sanh. 98a): ‘Rabbi Jochanan said, The Son of David shall not come, until all be either just or all be unjust: the former according to Isa_60:21, the latter according to Isa_59:16.
Isa_60:22 is also Messianically applied in the Talmudic passage above cited.
Isa_61:1 has already been mentioned in our remarks on Isa_32:14, Isa_32:15.
On Isa_61:5 there is a curious story related (Yalkut, vol. 1 Par. 212, p. 64a, lines 23-17 from the bottom) in which, in answer to a question, what was to become of the nations in the days of the Messiah, the reply is given that every nation and kingdom that had persecuted and mocked Israel would see, and be confounded, and have no share in life; but that every nation and kingdom which had not so dealt with Israel would come and be husbandman and vinedressers to Israel in the days of the Messiah. A similar statement to this is found in the Midrash on Ecc_2:7.
Isa_61:9 is also applied to Messianic times.
Isa_61:10 is one of the passages referred to in Tanchuma on Deu_1:1 quoted under Isa_25:9. In Pesiqta, ed. Buber, p. 149a, the verse is explained as applying to the glory of Messiah’s appearance.
Isa_62:10 has already been referred to in our remarks on Isa_57:14.
Isa 63 is applied to the Messiah, Who comes to the land after having seen the destruction of the Gentiles, in Pirqé de R. Eliez. 100:30.
Isa_63:2 has been referred to in our comments on Son_5:10. It is also quoted in reference to Messianic days in Pesiqta, ed. Buber, p. 149a.
Isa_63:4 is explained as pointing to the days of the Messiah, which are supposed to be 365 years, according to the number of the solar days (Sanh. 99a); while in other passages of the Midrashim, the destruction of Rome and the coming of the Messiah are conjoined with the day of vengeance. See also the Midr. on Ecc_12:10.
Isa_64:4 (3 in the Hebrew). In Yalkut on Isa 60 (vol. 2 p. 56d, line 6, etc., from the bottom) Messianic application is made of this passage in a legendary account of the seven tabernacles which God would make for the Messiah, out of each of which proceed four streams of wine, milk, honey, and pure balsam. Then God is represented as speaking of the sufferings which Messiah was to undergo, after which the verse in question is quoted.
Isa_65:17 is quoted in the Midrash on Lamentations, referred to in our remarks on Isa_11:12.
Isa_65:19 is one of the passages referred to in Tanchuma on Deu_1:1. See Isa_25:9.
To Isa_65:25 we have the following curious illustrative reference in Ber. R. 20 (ed. Warsh. p. 38b, line 6 from the bottom) in connection with the Fall: In the latter days everything shall be healed again (restored again) except the serpent (Isa_65:25) and the Gibeonites (Eze_48:19). But a still more strange application of the verse occurs in the same Midrash (Par. 96, ed. Warsh. p. 170a), where the opening clauses of it are quoted with this remark: Come and see all that the Holy One, blessed be His Name, has smitten in this world, He will heal in the latter days. Upon which a curious disquisition follows, to prove that every man would appear after death exactly as he had been in life, whether blind, dumb, or halting, nay, even in the same dress, as in the case of Samuel when Saul saw him – but that afterwards God would heal the diseased.
Isa_66:7 is applied to Messianic times in Vayyvikra R. 14 (last line), and so are some of the following verses in the Midrashim notably on Gen_33:1.
Isa_66:22 is applied to Messianic times in Ber. R. 12. See our remarks on Gen_2:4.
Jer_3:17 is applied to Messianic days in Yalkut on Jos_3:9 etc. (vol. 2 p. 3c, line 17 from the top), and so is Jer_3:18 in the commentation on the words in Son_1:16 ‘our bed is green,’ the expression being understood of the ten tribes, who had been led captive beyond the river Sabbatyon; but when Judah’s deliverance came, Judah and Benjamin would go to them and bring them back, that they might be worthy of the days of the Messiah (vol. 2 p. 176d, line 9 etc. from the bottom).
Jer_5:19 is mentioned in the Introd. to Echa R. as one of three passages by which to infer from the apostasy of Israel the near advent of Messiah.
The expression ‘speckled bird’ in Jer_12:9 is applied to the Messiah in Pirqé de R. Eliez. c. 28.
The last word in Jer_16:13 is made the basis of the name Chaninah, given to the Messiah in the Talmud (Sanh. 98b), and in the Midr. on Lam_1:16.
On Jer_16:14 Mechilta has it, that in the latter days the Exodus would no more be mentioned on account of the greater wonders then experienced.
On Jer_23:5, Jer_23:6, the Targum has it: ‘And I will raise up for David the Messiah the Just.’ This is one of the passages from which, according to Rabbinic views, one of the Names of the Messiah is derived, viz.: Jehovah our Righteousness. So in the Talmud (Babha Bathra 75b), in the Midrash on Psa_21:1, Pro_19:21, and in that on Lam_1:16.
On Jer_22:7 see our remarks on Jer_16:14. In the Talmud (Ber. 12b) this verse is distinctly applied to Messianic days.
Jer_30:9 is Messianically applied in the Targum on the passage.
Jer_30:21 is applied to the Messiah in the Targum, and also in the Midrash on Psa_21:7.
On Jer_31:8, Jer_31:3 clause, Yalkut has a Messianic interpretation, although extremely far-fetched. In general, the following verses are Messianically interpreted in the Midrashim.
Jer_31:20 is Messianically applied in Yalkut (ii. p. 66c, end), where it is supposed to refer to the Messiah when imprisoned, when, all the nations mock and shake their heads at Him. A more remarkable interpretation still occurs in the passage on Isa_60:1, to which we have already referred. Some farther extracts from it may be interesting. Thus, when the enemies of the Messiah flee before Him, God is supposed to make an agreement with the Messiah to this effect: The sins of those who are hidden with Thee will cause Thee to be put under an iron yoke, and they will do with Thee as with this calf, whose eyes are covered, and they will choke Thy spirit under the yoke, and on account of their sins Thy tongue shall cleave to Thy mouth. On which the Messiah inquires whether these troubles are to last for many years, and the Holy One replies that He has decreed a week, but that if His soul were in sorrow, He would immediately dispel these sorrows. On this the Messiah says: Lord of the world, with gladness and joy of heart I take it upon Me, on condition that not one of Israel should perish, and that not only those alone should be saved who are in My days, but also those who are hid in the dust; and that not only the dead should be saved who are in My days, but also those who have died from the days of the first Adam till now; and not only those, but also those who have been prematurely born. And not only these, but also those who have come into Thy knowledge to create them, but have not yet been created. Thus I agree, and thus I take all upon Me. In the hebdomad when the Son of David comes, they shall bring beams of iron, and shall make them a yoke to His neck, until His stature is bent down. But He cries and weeps, and lifts up His voice on high, and says before Him: Lord of the world, what is My strength, My spirit, and My soul, and My members? Am I not flesh and blood? In that hour David (the Son of David) weeps, and says: ‘My strength is dried up like a potsherd.’ In that hour the Holy One, blessed be His Name, says: Ephraim the Messiah, My righteous one, Thou best already taken this upon Thee before the six days of the world, now Thy anguish shall be like My anguish; for from the time that Nebuchadnezzar, the wicked one, has come up and destroyed My house, and burned My Sanctuary, and I have sent into captivity My children among the children of the Gentiles, by My life, and by the life of Thy head, I have not sat down on My throne. And if Thou wilt not believe Me, see the dew which is on My head, as it is said (Son_5:2) ‘My head is filled with dew.’ In that hour the Messiah answers Him: Lord of the world, now I am quieted, for it is enough for the servant that he is as his Master (this reminding us of our Lord’s saying, Mat_10:25). R. Isaac then remarks that in the year when the King Messiah shall be revealed, all nations shall rise up against each other (we have already quoted this passage in another place, as also that about the Messiah standing upon the roof of the Temple). Then follows this as a tradition of the Rabbis: In the latter days the Fathers shall stand up in the month of Nisan, and say to Him: Ephraim, the Messiah, our Righteousness, though we are Thy Fathers, yet Thou art better than we, because Thou hast borne all the sins of our sons, and hard and evil measure has passed upon Thee, such as has not been passed either upon them before or upon those after. And Thou hast been for laughter and derision to the nations for the sake of Israel, and Thou hast dwelt in darkness and in mist, and Thine eyes have not seen light, and Thy light clung to Thee alone, and Thy body was dried up like wood, and Thine eyes were darkened through fasting, and Thy strength was dried up like a potsherd. And all this on account of the sins of our children. Is it Thy pleasure that our sons should enjoy the good thing which God had displayed to Israel? Or perhaps on account of the anguish which Thou hast suffered for them, because they have bound Thee in the prison-house, wilt Thou not give unto them thereof? He says to them: Fathers of the world, whatever I have done I have only done for your sakes, and for the sake of your children, that they may enjoy that goodness which the Holy One, blessed be He, has displayed to Israel. Then say to Him the Fathers of the world: Ephraim, Messiah, our Righteousness, be Thou reconciled to us, because Thou hast reconciled Thy Maker and us. R. Simeon, the son of Pasi, said: In that hour the Holy One, blessed be His Name, exalts the Messiah to the heaven of heavens, and spreads over Him the splendour of His glory, because of the nations of the world, and because of the wicked Persians. Then the Fathers of the world say to Him: Ephraim, Messiah, our Righteousness, be Thou their judge, and do to them what Thy soul desireth. For unless mercies had been multiplied on Thee, they would long ago have exterminated Thee suddenly from the world, as it is written (Jer_31:20) ‘Is Ephraim My dear son?’ And why is the expression: ‘I will surely have mercy’ [in the Hebrew reduplicated: ‘having mercy I will have mercy’], but that the first expression ‘mercy ‘refers to the hour when He was bound in prison, when day by day they gnashed with their teeth, and winked with their eyes, and nodded with their heads, and wide-opened their mouths, as it is written in Psa_22:7 [8 in Hebrew]; while the second expression ‘I will have mercy’ refers to the hour when He came out of the prison-house, when not only one kingdom, nor two, came against Him, but 140 kingdoms came round about Him, and the Holy One, blessed be His Name, save to Him: Ephraim, Messiah, My righteous one, be not afraid, for all these shall perish by the breath of Thy mouth, as it is written (Isa_11:4). Long as this quotation may be, its interest seems sufficient to warrant its insertion.
Jer_31:31, Jer_31:33, and Jer_31:34 are applied to Messianic times in Yalkut (vol. 1 p. 196c; 78c; and in vol. 2 p. 54b, and p. 66d).
Jer_33:13. The close of the verse is thus paraphrased in the Targum: ‘The people shall yet learn by the hands of the Messiah,’ while in Yalkut (vol. 1 p. 105d) mention is made of a tenfold gathering together of Israel, the last – in connection with this verse – in the latter days.
On Lam_1:16 there is in the Midrash R. (ed. Warsh. p. 64b) the curious story about the birth of the Messiah in the royal palace of Bethlehem, which also occurs in the Jer. Talmud.
Lam_2:22, first clause. The Targum here remarks: Thou wilt proclaim liberty to Thy people, the house of Israel, by the hand of the Messiah.
Lam_4:22, first clause. The Targum here remarks: And after these things my iniquity shall cease, and thou shalt be set free by the hands of the Messiah and by the hands of Elijah the Priest
Eze_11:19 is applied to the great spiritual change that was to take place in Messianic days, when the evil desire would be taken out of the heart (Deb. R. 6, at the end; and also in other Midrashic passages).
Eze_16:55 is referred to among the ten things which God would renew in Messianic days – the rebuilding of ruined cities, inclusive of Sodom and Gomorrah, being the fourth (Shem. R. 15, ed. Warsh. p. 24b).
Eze_17:22 and Eze_17:23 is distinctly and very beautifully referred to the Messiah in the Targum.
Eze_25:14 is applied to the destruction of all the nations by Israel in the days of the Messiah in Bemidbar R. on Num_2:32 (Par. 2, ed. Warsh. p. 5b).
Eze_29:21 is among the passages applied to the time when the Messiah should come, in Sanh. 98a.
So is Eze_32:14.
Eze_36:25 is applied to Messianic times alike in the Targum and in Yalkut (vol. 1 p. 235a), as also in the Talmud (Kidd. 72b).
On Eze_36:27 see our remarks on Eze_11:19.
Eze_39:2 is Messianically applied in Bemidbar R. 13, ed. Warsh. p. 48b.
Eze_47:9 and Eze_47:12 are quoted as the second and the third things which God would renew in the latter days (Shem. R. 15) – the second being, that living waters should go forth out of Jerusalem, and the third, that trees should bear fruit every month, and the sick be healed by them.
On Eze_48:19 the Talmud (Baba B. 122a) has the following curious comment, that the land of Israel would be divided into thirteen tribes, the thirteenth belonging to the Prince, and this verse is quoted as proof.
Dan_2:22 is Messianically applied in Bar. R. 1, and in the Midr. on Lam_1:16, where it gives rise to another name of the Messiah: the Lightgiver.
Dan_2:35 is similarly applied in the Pirqé de R. Eliez. c. 1, and ii. 44 in c. 30.
Dan_7:9. This passage was interpreted by R. Akiba as implying that one throne was set for God, and the other for the Messiah (Chag. 14a).
Dan_7:13 is curiously explained in the Talmud (Sanh. 98a), where it is said that, if Israel behaved worthily, the Messiah would come in the clouds of heaven, if otherwise, humble, and riding upon an ass.
Dan_7:27 is applied to Messianic times in Bem. R. 11.
Dan_8:13, Dan_8:14. By a very curious combination these verses are brought into connection with Gen_3:22 (‘man has become like one of us’), and it is argued, that in Messianic days man’s primeval innocence and glory would be restored to him, and he become like one of the heavenly beings, Ber. R. 21 (ed. Warsh. p. 41a).
Dan_4:24. In Naz. 32b it is noted that this referred to the time when the second Temple was to be destroyed. So also in Yalkut vol. 2 p. 79d lines 16 etc. from the bottom.
Dan_12:3 is applied to Messianic times in a beautiful passage in Shem. R. 15 (at the end).
Dan_12:11, Dan_12:12. These two verses receive a peculiar Messianic interpretation, and that by the authority of the Rabbis. For it is argued that, as Moses, the first Redeemer, appeared, and was withdrawn for a time, and then reappeared, so would the second Redeemer; and the interval between His disappearance and reappearance is calculated at 45 days, arrived at by deducting the 1,290 days of the cessation of the sacrifice (Dan_12:11) from the 1,335 days of Dan_12:12 (Midr. on Rth_2:14, ed. Warsh. p. 43b).
Hos_2:2 is explained in the Midr. on Psa_45:1 as implying that Israel’s redemption would be when they were at the lowest.
Hos_2:13 is one of the three passages referred to on Jer_5:19.
Hos_2:18 is quoted in Shem. R. 15 (on Exo_12:2) as the seventh of the ten things which God would make new in Messianic days.
Hos_3:5 is applied to the Messiah in the Targum, and from it the Jer. Talm. (Ber. 5a) derives the name David as one of those given to the Messiah.
Hos_6:2 is Messianically applied in the Targum.
Hos_13:14 is applied to the deliverance by the Messiah of those of Israel who are in Gehinnom, whom He sets free; – the term Zion being understood of Paradise. See Yalk. on Isa Par. 269, comp. Maas. de R. Joshua in Jellinek’s Beth ha-Midr. ii. p. 50.
Hos_14:7 is Messianically applied in the Targum.
Joe_2:28 is explained in the Midrashim as referring to the latter days, when all Israel will be prophets (Bemidbar R. 15; Yalkut i. p. 220c, and other places).
Joe_3:18 is similarly applied in the Midrashim, as in that on Psa_13:1-6 and in others. The last clause of this verse is explained in the Midr. on Ecc_1:9 to imply that the Messiah would cause a fountain miraculously to spring up, as Moses did in the wilderness.
Amo_4:7 is in Midr. on Cant. ii. 13 applied to the first of the seven years before Messiah come.
Amo_5:18 is one of the passages adduced in the Talmud (Sanh. 98b) to explain why certain Rabbis did not wish to see the day of the Messiah.
Amo_8:11 is applied to Messianic times in Ber. R. 25.
Amo_9:11 is a notable Messianic passage. Thus, in the Talmud (Sanh. 96b) where the Messiah is called the ‘Son of the Fallen,’ the name is explained by a reference to this passage. Again, in Ber. R. 88, last three lines (ed. Warsh. p. 157a), after enumerating the unexpected deliverances which Israel had formerly experienced, it is added: Who could have expected that the fallen tabernacle of David should be raised up by God, as it is written (Amo_9:11) and who should have expected that the whole world should become one bundle (be gathered into one Church)? Yet it is written Zep_3:9. Comp. also the long discussion in Yalkut on this passage (vol. 2 p. 80 a and b).
Oba_1:18 and Oba_1:21 are applied to the Kingdom and time of the Messiah in Deb. R. 1.
Mic_2:13. See our remarks on Gen_18:4, Gen_18:5. The passage is also Messianically quoted in the Midrash on Pr 6 (ed. Lemberg, p. 5a, first two lines).
The promise in Mic_4:3 is applied to the times of the Messiah in the Talmud (Shabb. 63a).
So is the prediction in Mic_2:5 in Shemoth R. 15; while Mic_2:8 is thus commented upon in the Targum: ‘And thou Messiah of Israel, Who shalt be hidden on account of the sins of Zion, to thee shall the Kingdom come.’
The well-known passage, Mic_5:2, is admittedly Messianic. So in the Targum, in the Pirqé de R. Eliez. c. 3, and by later Rabbis.
Mic_5:8 is applied in the Talmud to the fact that the Messiah was not to come till the hostile kingdom had spread for nine months over the whole world (Yoma 10a), or else, over the whole land of Israel (Sanh. 98b).
Similarly Mic_7:6 is applied to Messianic times in Sanh. 97a, and in Sotah 49b; also in the Midr. on Cant. ii. 13. And so is Mic_7:15 in Yalkut (vol. 2 p. 112b.
In Mic_7:8, the expression, Jehovah shall be light to me, is referred to the days of the Messiah in Deb. R. 11, ed. Warsh. vol. 5 p. 22a.
Nah_2:1. See our remarks on Isa_52:7.
Hab_2:3. This is applied to Messianic times in a remarkable passage in Sanh. 97b, which will be quoted in full at the close of this Appendix; also in Yalkut, vol. 2 p. 83b.
Hab_3:18 is applied to Messianic times in the Targum.
Zep_3:8. The words rendered in our A.V. ‘the day that I rise up to the prey’ are translated ‘for testimony’ and applied to God’s bearing testimony for the Messiah (Yalkut, vol. 2 p. 84c, line 6 from the top).
Zep_3:9 is applied to the voluntary conversion of the Gentiles in the days of the Messiah in the Talmud (Abhod. Zarah, 24a); and in Ber. R. 88; and Zep_3:11 in Sanh. 98a.
Hag_2:6 is expressly applied to the coming redemption in Deb. R. 1 (ed. Warsh. p. 4b, line 15 from the top).
Zec_1:20. The four carpenters there spoken of are variously interpreted in the Talmud (Sukk. 62b), and in the Midrash (Bemidbar R. 14). But both agree that one of them refers to the Messiah.
Zec_2:10 is one of the Messianic passages to which we have referred in our remarks on Isa_60:4. It has also a Messianic cast in the Targum.
Zec_3:8. The designation ‘Branch’ is expressly applied to King Messiah in the Targum. Indeed, this is one of the Messiah’s peculiar names.
Zec_3:10 is quoted in the Midrash on Ps 72 (ed. Warsh. p. 56a, at the top) in a description of the future time of universal peace.
Zec_4:7 is generally applied to the Messiah, expressly in the Targum, and also in several of the Midrashim. Thus, as regards both clauses of it, in Tanchuma (Par. toledoṯ 14, ed. Warsh. p. 37b and 38a).
Zec_4:10 is Messianically explained in Tanchuma (u.s.).
Zec_6:12 is universally admitted to be Messianic. So in the Targum, the Jerusalem Talmud (Ber. 5a), in the Pirqé de R. Eliez. 100:48, and in the Midrashim.
Zec_8:13 is one of the three passages supposed to mark the near advent of Messiah. See our remarks on Jer_5:19.
Zec_8:12 is applied to Messianic times in Ber. R. 12. See our remarks on Gen_2:4.
Zec_8:23 is one of the predictions expected to be fulfilled in Messianic days, it being however noted that it refers to instruction in the Law in that remarkable passage on Isa_60:1 in Yalkut 2 p. 56d, to which we have already referred.
In Zec_9:1 the name ‘Chadrakh’ is mystically separated into ‘Chad,’ sharp, and ‘rakh,’ gentle, the Messiah being the one to the Gentiles and the other to the Jews (Siphré on Dt p. 65a, Yalkut 1 p. 258b).
Zec_9:9. The Messianic application of this verse in all its parts has already repeatedly been indicated. We may here add that there are many traditions about this ass on which the Messiah is to ride; and so firm was the belief in it, that, according to the Talmud, ‘if anyone saw an ass in his dreams, he will see salvation’ (Ber. 56b). The verse is also Messianically quoted in Sanh. 98a, in Pirqé de R. Eliez. c. 31, and in several of the Midrashim.
On Zec_9:10 see our remarks on Deu_20:10.
Zec_10:4 is Messianically applied in the Targum.
Zec_11:12 is Messianically explained in Ber. R. 98, but with this remark, that the 30 pieces of silver apply to 30 precepts, which the Messiah is to give to Israel.
Zec_12:10 is applied to the Messiah the Son of Joseph in the Talmud (Sukk. 52a), and so is Zec_12:12, there being, however, a difference of opinion whether the mourning is caused by the death of the Messiah the Son of Joseph, or else on account of the evil concupiscence (Yetser haRa).
Zec_14:2 will be readily understood to have been applied to the wars of Messianic times, and this in many passages of the Midrashim, as, indeed, are Zec_14:3, Zec_14:4, Zec_14:5, and Zec_14:6.
Zec_14:7. The following interesting remark occurs in Yalkut on Psa_139:16, Psa_139:17 (vol. 2 p. 129d) on the words ‘none of them.’ This world is to last 6,000 years; 2,000 years it was waste and desolate, 2,000 years mark the period under the Law, 2,000 years that under the Messiah. And because our sins are increased, they are prolonged. As they are prolonged, and as we make one year in seven a Sabbatic year, so will God in the latter days make one day a Sabbatic year, which day is 1,000 years – to which applies the verse in Zechariah just quoted. See also Pirqé de R. Eliez. c. 28.
Zec_14:8 is Messianically applied in Ber. R. 48. See our remarks on Gen_18:4, Gen_18:5.
Zec_14:9 is, of course, applied to Messianic times, as in Yalkut 1 p. 76c, 266a, and vol. 2 p. 33c, Midr. on Cant. ii. 13, and in other passages.
Mal_3:1 is applied to Elijah as forerunner of the Messiah in Pirqé de R. Eliez. 100:29.
Mal_3:4. In Bemidbar R. 17; a little before the close (ed. Walsh. p. 69a), this verse seems to be applied to acceptable sacrifices in Messianic days.
On Mal_3:16 Vayyikra R. 34 (ed. Warsh. p. 51b, line 4 from the bottom) has the following curious remark: If any one in former times did the Commandment, the prophets wrote it down. But now when a man observes the Commandment, who writes it down? Elijah and the King Messiah and the Holy One, blessed be His Name, seal it at their hands, and a memorial book is written, as it is written Mal_3:16.
The promise in Mal_3:17 is extended to Messianic days in Shemoth R. 18.
On Mal_4:1 (in Hebrew 3:19) the following curious comment occurs in Bereshith R. 6 (p. 14b, lines 15 etc. from the bottom): ‘The globe of the sun is encased, as it is said, He maketh a tabernacle for the sun (Psa_19:1-14). And a pool of water is before it. When the sun comes out, God cools its heat in the water lest it should burn up the world. But in the latter days the Holy One takes it out of its sheath, and with it burns up the wicked, as it, is written Mal_4:1.’
Mal_4:2 (3:20 in Hebrew) is in Shemoth R. 31 quoted in connection with Exo_22:26, and explained ‘till the Messiah comes.’
Mal_4:5 is, of course, applied to the forerunner of the Messiah. So in many places, as in the Pirqé de R. Eliez. c. 40; Debarim R. 3; in the Midrash on Cant. i. 1; in the Talmud, and in Yalkut repeatedly.