Treatise XII. – Three Books of Testimonies Against the Jews. (Cont.)
Third Book. (Cont.)
29. That it was before predicted, concerning the hatred of the Name.
In the Gospel according to Luke: “And ye shall be hated of all men for my name’s sake.” (Luk_21:17) Also according to John: “If the world hate you, know ye that it first hated me. If ye were of the world, the world would love what would be its own: but because ye are not of the world, and I have chosen you out of the world, therefore the world hateth you. Remember the word which I said unto you, The servant is not greater than his lord. If they have persecuted me, they will also persecute you.” (Joh_15:18-20) Also in Baruch:348 “For the time shall come, and ye shall seek me, both ye and those who shall be after you, to hear the word of wisdom and of understanding; and ye shall not find me. But the nations shall desire to see the wise man, and it shall not happen to them; not because the wisdom of this world shall be wanting, or shall fail to the earth; but neither shall the word of the law be wanting to the world. For wisdom shall be in a few who watch, and are silent and quiet, and who hold converse with one another; because some shall dread them, and shall fear them as evil. But some do not believe the word of the law of the Highest. But some who are amazed in their countenance will not believe; and they also who contradict will believe, and will be contrary to and hindering the spirit of truth. Moreover, others will be wise to the spirit of error, and declaring the edicts, as if of the Highest and the Strong One. Moreover, others are possessors of faith.349 Others are mighty and strong in the faith of the Highest, and hateful to the stranger.”
30. That what any one has vowed to God, he must quickly repay.
In Solomon: “According as thou hast vowed a vow to God, delay not to pay it.” (Ecc_5:4) Concerning this same thing in Deuteronomy: “But if thou hast vowed a vow to the Lord thy God, I thou shalt not delay to pay it: because the Lord thy God inquiring shall seek it of thee; and it shall be for a sin. Thou shalt observe those things that shall go forth out of thy lips, and shalt perform the gift which thou hast spoken with thy mouth.” (Deu_23:21-23) Of this same matter in the forty-ninth Psalm: “Sacrifice to God the sacrifice of praise, and pay thy vows to the Most High. Call upon me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me.” (Psa_50:14, Psa_50:15) Of this same thing in the Acts of the Apostles: “Why hath Satan filled thine heart, that thou shouldst lie to the Holy Ghost, when thy estate was in thine own power? Thou hast not lied unto men, but unto God.” (Act_5:3, Act_5:4) Also in Jeremiah: “Cursed is he who doeth the work of God negligently.” (Jer_48:10)
31. That he who does not believe is judged already.
In the Gospel according to John: “He that believeth not is already judged, because he hath not believed in the name of the only350 Son of God. And this is the judgment, that light has come into the world, and men have loved darkness rather than light.” (Joh_3:18, Joh_3:19) Of this also in the first Psalm: “Therefore the ungodly shall not rise up in judgment, nor sinners in the council of the righteous.” (Psa_1:5)
32. Of the benefit of virginity and of continency.351
In Genesis: “Multiplying I will multiply thy sorrows and thy groanings, and in sorrow shalt thou bring forth children; and thy turning shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.” (Gen_3:16) Of this same thing in the Gospel according to Matthew: “All men do not receive the word, but they to whom it is given: for there are some eunuchs who were born so from their mother’s womb, and there are eunuchs who have been constrained by men, and there are eunuchs who have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven’s sake. He who can receive it, let him receive it.” (Mat_19:11, Mat_19:12) Also according to Luke: “The children of this world beget, and are begotten. But they who have been considered worthy of that world, and the resurrection from the dead, do not marry, nor are married: for neither shall they begin to die: for they are equal to the angels of God, since they are the children of the resurrection. But, that the dead rise again, Moses intimates when he says in the bush, The Lord, the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. He is not the God of the dead, but of the living: for all live unto Him.” (Luk_20:34-38) Also in the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: “It is good for a man not to touch a woman. But, on account of fornication, let every man have his own wife, and every woman have her own husband. Let the husband render what is due to the wife, and similarly the wife to the husband. The wife hath not power over her own body, but the husband. And in like manner, the husband hath not power over his own body, but the wife. Defraud not one the other, except by agreement for a time, that ye may have leisure for prayer; and again return to the same point, lest Satan tempt you on account of your incontinency. This I say by way of allowance, not by way of command. But I wish that all men should be even as I am. But every one has his proper gift from God; one in one way, but another in another way.” (1Co_7:1-7) Also in the same place: “An unmarried man thinks of those things which are the Lord’s, in what way he may please God; but he who has contracted marriage thinks of those things that are of this world, in what way he may please his wife. Thus also, both the woman and the unmarried virgin thinketh of those things which are the Lord’s, that she may be holy both in body and in spirit; but she that hath married thinks of those things which are of this world, in what way she may please her husband.” (1Co_7:32-34) Also in Exodus, when the Lord had commanded Moses that he should sanctify the people for the third day, he sanctified them, and added: “Be ye ready, for three days ye shall not approach to women.” (Exo_19:15) Also in the first book of Kings: “And the priest answered to David, and said, There are no profane loaves in my hand, except one sacred loaf. If the young men have been kept back from women, they shall eat.” (1Sa_21:4) Also in the Apocalypse: “These are they who have not defiled themselves with women, for they have continued virgins; these are they who follow the Lamb whithersoever He shall go.” (Rev_14:4)
33. That the Father judgeth nothing, but the Son; and that the Father is not glorified by him by whom the Son is not glorified.
In the Gospel according to John: “The Father judgeth nothing, but hath given all judgment unto the Son, that all may honour the Son as they honour the Father. He who honoureth not the Son, honoureth not the Father who hath sent Him.” (Joh_5:22, Joh_5:23) Also in the seventy-first Psalm: “O God, give the king Thy judgment, and Thy righteousness to the king’s son, to judge Thy people in righteousness.” (Psa_72:1, Psa_72:2) Also in Genesis: “And the Lord rained upon Sodom and Gomorrah sulphur, and fire from heaven from the Lord.” (Gen_19:24)
34. That the believer ought not to live like the Gentile.
In Jeremiah: “Thus saith the Lord, Walk ye not according to the way of the Gentiles.” (Jer_10:2) Of this same thing, that one ought to separate himself from the Gentiles, lest he should be a companion of their sin, and become a partaker of their penalty, in the Apocalypse: “And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, Go forth from her, my people, lest thou be partaker of her crimes, and lest thou be stricken with her plagues; because her crimes have reached even to heaven, and the Lord God hath remembered her iniquities. Therefore He hath returned unto her double, and in the cup which she hath mixed double is mingled for her; and in how much she hath glorified herself and possessed of delights, in so much is given unto her both torment and grief. For in her heart she says, I am a queen, and cannot be a widow, nor shah I see sorrow. Therefore in one hour her plagues shall come on her, death, grief, and famine; and she shall be burned with fire, because the Lord God is strong who shall judge her. And the kings of the earth shall weep and lament themselves for her, who have committed fornication with her, and have been conversant in her sins.” (Rev_18:4-9)352 Also in Isaiah: “Go forth from the midst of them, ye who bear the vessels of the Lord.” (Isa_52:11)
35. That God is patient for this end, that we may repent of our sin, and be reformed.
In Solomon, in Ecclesiasticus: “Say not, I have sinned, and what sorrow hath happened to me? For the Highest is a patient repayer.” (Sirach 5:4) Also Paul to the Romans: “Or despisest thou the riches of His goodness, and forbearance, and patience, not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance? But, according to thy hardness and impenitent heart, thou treasurest up to thyself wrath in the day of wrath and of revelation of the just judgment of God, who will render to every man according to his deeds.” (Rom_2:4-6)
36. That a woman ought not to be adorned in a worldly fashion.
In the Apocalypse: “And there came one of the seven angels having vials, and approached me, saying, Come, I will show thee the condemnation of the great whore, who sitteth upon many waters, with whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication. And I saw a woman who sate upon a beast. And that woman was clothed with a purple and scarlet robe; and she was adorned with gold, and precious stones, and pearls, holding a golden cup in her hand full of curses, and impurity, and fornication of the whole earth.” (Rev_17:1-4) Also to Timothy: “Let your women be such as adorn themselves with shamefacedness and modesty, not with twisted hair, nor with gold, nor with pearls, or precious garments, but as becometh women professing chastity, with a good conversation.” (1Ti_2:9-10) Of this same thing in the Epistle of Peter to the people at Pontus: “Let there be in a woman not the outward adorning of ornament, or of gold, or of apparel, but the adorning of the heart.” (1Pe_3:4)353 Also in Genesis: “Thamar covered herself with a cloak, and adorned herself; and when Judah beheld her, she appeared to him to be a harlot.” (Gen_38:14, Gen_38:15)
37. That the believer ought not to be punished for other offences, except for the name he bears.
In the Epistle of Peter to them of Pontus: “Nor let any of you suffer as a thief, or a murderer, or as an evil-doer, or as a minder of other people’s business,354 but as a Christian.” (1Pe_4:15, 1Pe_4:16 )
38. That the servant of God ought to be innocent, lest he fall into secular punishment.
In the Epistle of Paul to the Romans: “Wilt thou not be afraid of the power? Do that which is good, and thou shall have praise of it.” (Rom_13:3)
39. That there is given to us an example of living in Christ.
In the Epistle of Peter to them of Pontus: “For Christ suffered for us, leaving you an example, that ye may follow His steps; who did no sin, neither was guile found in His mouth; who, when He was reviled, reviled not again; when He suffered, threatened not, but gave Himself up to him that judgeth unrighteously.” (1Pe_2:21-23) Also Paul to the Philippians: “Who, being appointed in the figure of God, thought it not robbery that He was equal with God; but emptied Himself, taking the form of a servant, He was made in the likeness of man, and was found in fashion as a man. He humbled Himself, becoming obedient even unto death, and the death of the cross. For which cause also God hath exalted Him, and hath given Him a name, that it may be above every name, that in the name of Jesus every knee should be bowed, of things heavenly, and earthly, and infernal; and that every tongue should confess that the Lord Jesus Christ is in glory of God the Father.” (Phi_2:21-23) Of this same thing in the Gospel according to John: “If I have washed your feet, being your Master and Lord, ye also ought to wash the feet of others. For I have given you an example, that as I have done, ye also should do to others.” (Joh_13:14, Joh_13:15)
40. That we must not labour noisily nor boastfully.
In the Gospel according to Matthew: “Let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth, that thine alms may be in secret; and thy Father, which seeth in secret, shall render to thee.” (Mat_6:3, Mat_6:4) Also in the same place: “When thou doest an alms, do not sound a trumpet before thee, as the hypocrites do in the streets and in the synagogues, that they may be glorified of men. Verily I say unto you, They have fulfilled their reward.” (Mat_6:2)
41. That we must not speak foolishly and offensively.
In Paul’s Epistle to the Ephesians: “Foolish speaking and scurrility, which are not fitting for the occasion, let them not be even named among you.” (Eph_5:4)
42. That faith is of advantage altogether, and that we can do as much as we believe.
In Genesis: “And Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness.” (Gen_15:6) Also in Isaiah: “And if ye do not believe, neither shall ye understand.” (Isa_7:9) Also in the Gospel according to Matthew: “O thou of little faith, wherefore didst thou doubt?” (Mat_14:31) Also in the same place: “If you have faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say to this mountain, Pass over from here to that place, and it shall pass over; and nothing shall be impossible unto you.” (Mat_17:20) Also according to Mark: “All things whatsoever ye pray and ask for, believe that ye shall receive them, and they shall be yours.” (Mar_11:24) Also in the same place: All things are possible to him that believeth.” (Mar_9:22) In Habakkuk: “But the righteous liveth by my faith.” (Hab_2:4) Also in Daniel: “Ananias, Azarias, and Misael, trusting in God, were delivered from the fiery flame.”
43. That he who believes can immediately obtain (i.e., pardon and peace).
In the Acts of the Apostles: “Lo, here is water; what is there which hinders me from being baptized? Then said Philip, If thou believest with all thine heart, thou mayest.” (Act_8:36, Act_8:37)
44. That believers who differ among themselves ought not to refer to a Gentile judge.355
In the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: “Dares any of you, having a matter against other, to discuss it among the unrighteous, and not among the saints? Know ye not that the saints shall judge this world?” (1Co_6:1, 1Co_6:2) And again: “Now indeed there is altogether a fault among you, because ye have judgments one against another. Wherefore do ye not rather suffer injury? or wherefore are ye not rather defrauded? But ye do wrong, and defraud, and this your brethren. Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not obtain the kingdom of God?” (1Co_6:7-9)
45. That hope is of future things, and therefore that our faith concerning those things which are promised ought to be patient.
In the Epistle of Paul to the Romans: “We are saved by hope. But hope that is seen is not hope; for what a man seeth, why doth he hope for? But if we hope for what we see not, we hope356 for it in patience.” (Rom_8:24, Rom_8:25)
46. That a woman ought to be silent in the church.
In the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: “Let women be silent in the church. But if any wish to learn anything, let them ask their husbands at home.” (1Co_14:34, 1Co_14:35)357 Also to Timothy: “Let a woman learn with silence, in all subjection. But I permit not a woman to teach, nor to be set over the man, but to be in silence. For Adam was first formed, then Eve; and Adam was not seduced, but the woman was seduced.” (1Ti_2:11-14)
47. That it arises from our fault and our desert that we suffer, and do not perceive God’s help in everything.
In Hosea: “Hear ye the word of the Lord, ye children of Israel: because judgment is from the Lord against the inhabitants of the earth because there is neither mercy nor truth, nor acknowledgment of God upon the earth; but cursing, and lying, and slaughter, and theft, and adultery is scattered abroad upon the earth: they mingle blood to blood. Therefore the land shall mourn, with all its inhabitants, with the beasts of the field, with the creeping things of the earth, with the birds of heaven; and the fishes of the sea shall fail: so that no man may judge, no man may refute.” (Hos_4:1-4) Of this same thing in Isaiah: “Is not the Lord’s hand strong to save, or has He weighed down His ear that He may not hear? But your sins separate between you and God; and on account of your iniquities He turns away His face from you, lest He should pity. For your hands are polluted with blood, and your fingers with sins; and your lips have spoken wickedness, and your tongue devises unrighteousness. No one speaks true things, neither is judgment true. They trust in vanity, and speak emptiness, who conceive sorrow, and bring forth wickedness.” (Isa_59:1-4) Also in Zephaniah: “In failing, let it fail from the face of the earth, saith the Lord. Let man fail, and cattle; let the birds of heaven fail, and the fishes of the sea; and I will take away the unrighteous from the face of the earth.” (Zep_1:2, Zep_1:3)
48. That we must not take usury.
In the thirteenth Psalm:358 “He that hath not given his money upon usury, and has not received gifts concerning the innocent. He who doeth these things shall not be moved for ever.” (Psa_15:1-5:6) Also in Ezekiel: “But the man who will be righteous, shall not oppress a man, and shall return the pledge of the debtor, and shall not commit rapine, and shall give his bread to the hungry, and shall cover the naked, and shall not give his money for usury.” (Eze_18:7, Eze_18:8) Also in Deuteronomy: “Thou shalt not lend to thy brother with usury of money, and with usury of victuals.” (Deu_23:19)
49. That even our enemies must be loved.
In the Gospel according to Luke: “If ye love those who love you, what thank have ye? For even sinners love those who love them.” (Luk_6:32) Also according to Matthew: “Love your enemies, and pray for those who persecute you, that ye may be the children of your Father who is in heaven, who maketh His sun to rise upon the good and the evil, and giveth rain upon the righteous and the unrighteous.” (Mat_5:44, Mat_5:45)
50. That the sacrament of faith must not be profaned.
In Solomon, in the Proverbs: “Say not anything in the ears of a foolish man; lest, when he hears it, he may mock at thy wise words.” (Pro_23:9) Also in the Gospel according to Matthew: “Give not that which is holy to dogs; neither cast ye your pearls before the swine, lest perchance they trample them down with their feet, and turn again and crush you.” (Mat_7:6)
51. That no one should be uplifted in his labour.359
In Solomon, in Ecclesiasticus: “Extol not thyself in doing thy work.” (Sirach 10:26) Also in the Gospel according to Luke: “Which of you, having a servant ploughing, or a shepherd, says to him when he cometh from the field, Pass forward and recline? But he says to him, Make ready somewhat that I may sup, and gird thyself, and minister to me, until I eat and drink; and afterwards thou shalt eat and drink? Does he thank that servant because he has done what was commanded him? So also ye, when ye shall have done that which is commanded you, say, We are unprofitable servants; we have done what we had to do.” (Luk_17:7-10)
52. That the liberty of believing or of not believing is placed in free choice.
In Deuteronomy: “Lo, I have set before thy face life and death, good and evil. Choose for thyself life, that thou mayest live.” (Deu_13:1-18:19) Also in Isaiah: “And if ye be willing, and hear me, ye shall eat the good of the land. But if ye be unwilling, and will not hear me, the sword shall consume you. For the mouth of the Lord hath spoken these things.” (Isa_1:9) Also in the Gospel according to Luke: “The kingdom of God is within you.” (Luk_17:21)
53. That he secrets of God cannot be seen through, and therefore that our faith ought to be simple.360
In the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: “We see now through the glass in an enigma, but then with face to face. Now I know partly; but then I shall know even as also I am known.” (1Co_13:12) Also in Solomon, in Wisdom: “And in simplicity of heart seek Him.” (Wisdom of Solomon 1:1) Also in the same: “He who walketh with simplicity, walketh trustfully.” (Pro_10:9) Also in the same: “Seek not things higher than thyself, and look not into things stronger than thyself.” (Ecc_3:21) Also in Solomon: “Be not excessively righteous, and do not reason more than is required.” (Sirach 7:17) Also in Isaiah: “Woe unto them who are convicted in themselves.” (Isa_29:15) Also in the Maccabees: “Daniel in his simplicity was delivered from the mouth of tile lions.” (1 Maccabees 2:60) Also in the Epistle of Paul to the Romans: “Oh the depth of the riches of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How incomprehensible are His judgments, and how unsearchable are His ways! For who has known the mind of the Lord? or who has been His counsellor? or who has first given to Him, and it shall be recompensed to him again? Because from Him, and through Him, and in Him, are all things: to Him be glory for ever and ever.” (Rom_11:33-36) Also to Timothy: “But foolish and unlearned questions avoid, knowing that they generate strifes. But the servant of God ought not to strive, but to be gentle towards all men.” (2Ti_2:23, 2Ti_2:24)
54. That no one is without filth and without sin.
In Job: “For who is pure from filth? Not one; even if his life be of one day on the earth.” (Job_14:4, Job_14:5) Also in the fiftieth Psalm: “Behold, I was conceived in iniquities, and in sins hath my mother conceived me.” (Psa_51:5) Also in the Epistle of John: “If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us.” (1Jo_1:8)
55. That we must not please men, but God.
In the fifty-second Psalm: “They that please men are confounded, because God hath made them nothing.” (Psa_53:5) Also in the Epistle of Paul to the Galatians: “If I wished to please men, I should not be the servant of Christ.” (Gal_1:10)
56. That nothing that is done is hidden from God.
In the Wisdom of Solomon: “In every place the eyes of God look upon the good and evil.” (Pro_15:3) Also in Jeremiah: “I am a God at hand, and not a God afar off. If a man should be hidden in the secret place, shall I not therefore see him? Do not I fill heaven and earth? saith the Lord.” (Jer_23:23, Jer_23:24) Also in the first of Kings: “Man looketh on the face, but God on the heart.” (1Sa_16:7) Also in the Apocalypse: “And all the churches shall know that I am the searcher of the reins and heart; and I will give to every one of you according to his works.” (Rev_2:23) Also in the eighteenth Psalm: “Who understands his faults? Cleanse Thou me from my secret sins, O Lord.” (Psa_19:12) Also in the second Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: “We must all be manifested before the tribunal of Christ, that every one may bear again the things which belong to his own body, according to what he hath done, whether good or evil.” (2Co_5:10)
57. That the believer is amended and reserved.
In the 117th Psalm: “The Lord amending hath amended me, and hath not delivered me to death.” (Psa_118:18) Also in the eighty-eighth Psalm: “I will visit their transgressions with a rod, and their sins with scourges. But my mercy will I not scatter away from them.” (Psa_89:32, Psa_89:33) Also in Malachi: “And He shall sit melting and purifying, as it were, gold and silver; and He shall purify the sons of Levi.” (Mal_3:3) Also in the Gospel: “Thou shalt not go out thence until thou pay the uttermost farthing.” (Mat_5:26)
58. That no one should be made sad by death; since in living is labour and peril, in dying peace and the certainty of resurrection.
In Genesis: “Then said the Lord to Adam, Because thou hast hearkened to the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of that tree of which alone I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat, cursed shall be the ground in all thy works; in sadness and groaning shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life: thorns and thistles shall it cast forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field in the sweat of thy brow. Thou shall eat thy bread until thou return unto the earth from which also thou wast taken; because earth thou art, and to earth thou shall go.” (Gen_3:17-19) Also in the same place: “And Enoch pleased God, and was not found afterwards: because God translated him.” (Gen_5:24) And in Isaiah: “All flesh is grass, and all the glory of it as the flower of grass. The grass withered, and the flower hath fallen away; but the word of the Lord abideth for ever.” (Isa_40:6, Isa_40:7) In Ezekiel: “They say, Our bones are become dry, our hope hath perished: we have expired. Therefore prophesy, and say, Thus saith the Lord, Behold, I open your monuments, and I will bring you forth from your monuments, and I will bring you into the land of Israel; and I will put my Spirit upon you, and ye shall live; and I will place you into your land: and ye shall know that I the Lord have spoken, and will do it, saith the Lord.” (Eze_37:11-14) Also in the Wisdom of Solomon: “He was taken away, lest wickedness should change his understanding; for his soul was pleasing to God.” (Wisdom of Solomon 4:11, 14) Also in the eighty-third Psalm: “How beloved361 are thy dwellings, Thou Lord of hosts? My soul desires and hastes to the courts of God.” (Psa_84:1, Psa_84:2) And in the Epistle of Paul to the Thessalonians: “But we would not that you should be ignorant, brethren, concerning those who sleep, that ye sorrow not as others which have no hope. For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, so also them which have fallen asleep in Jesus will God bring with Him.” (1Th_4:13, 1Th_4:14) Also in the first Epistle to the Corinthians: “Thou fool, that which thou sowest is not quickened except it have first died.” (1Co_15:36) And again: “Star differeth from star in glory: so also the resurrection. The body is sown in corruption, it rises without corruption; it is sown in ignominy, it rises again in glory; it is sown in weakness, it rises again in power; it is sown an animal body, it rises again a spiritual body.” (1Co_15:41-44) And again: “For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal put on immortality. But when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on immortality, then shall come to pass the word that is written, Death is absorbed Into striving. Where, O death, is thy sting? Where, O death, is thy striving?” (1Co_15:53-55) Also in the Gospel according to John: “Father, I will that those whom Thou hast given me be with me where I shall be, and may see my glory which Thou hast given me before the foundation of the world.” (Joh_17:24) Also according to Luke: “Now lettest Thou Thy servant depart in peace, O Lord, according to the word; for mine eyes have seen Thy salvation.” (Luk_2:29, Luk_2:30) Also according to John: “If ye loved me, ye would rejoice because I go to the Father; for the Father is greater than I.” (Joh_14:28)
59. Of the idols which the Gentiles think to be gods.
In the Wisdom of Solomon: “All the idols of the nations they counted gods, which neither have the use of their eyes for seeing, nor their nostrils to receive breath, nor their ears for hearing, nor the fingers on their hands for handling; but their feet also are slow to walk. For man made them; and he who has borrowed his breath, he fashioned them. But no man will be able to fashion a god like to himself. For since he is mortal, he fashioneth a dead thing with wicked hands. But he himself is better than they whom he worships, since he indeed lived, but they never.” (Wisdom of Solomon 15:15-17) On this same matter: “Neither have they who have regarded the works known who was the artificer, but have thought that either fire, or wind, or the rapid air, or the circle of the stars, or the abundant water, or the sun and moon, were the gods that rule over the world; and if, on account of the beauty of these, they have thought thus, let them know how much more beautiful than these is the Lord; or if they have admired their powers and operations, let them perceive from these very things that He who has established these mighty things is stronger than they.” (Wisdom of Solomon 13:1-4) Also in the 134th Psalm: “The idols of the nations are silver and gold, the work of men’s hands. They have a mouth, and speak not; they have eyes, and see not; they have ears, and hear not; and neither is there any breath in their mouth. Let them who make them become like unto them, and all those who trust in them.” (Psa_135:16-18) Also in the ninety-fifth Psalm: “All the gods of the nations are demons, but the Lord made the heavens.” (Psa_96:5) Also in Exodus: “Ye shall not make unto yourselves gods of silver nor of gold.” (Exo_20:23) And again: “Thou shalt not make to thyself an idol, nor the likeness of any thing.” (Exo_20:4)362 Also in Jeremiah: “Thus saith the Lord, Walk not according to the ways of the heathen; for they fear those things in their own persons, because the lawful things of the heathen are vain. Wood cut out from the forest is made, the work of the carpenter, and melted silver and gold are beautifully arranged: they strengthen them with hammers and nails, and they shall not be moved, for they are fixed. The silver is brought from Tharsis, the gold comes from Moab. All things are the works of the artificers; they will clothe it with blue and purple; lifting them, they will carry them, because they will not go forward. Be not afraid of them, because they do no evil, neither is there good in them. Say thus, The gods that have not made the heaven and the earth perish from the earth, and from under this heaven. The heaven hath trembled at this, and hath shuddered much more vehemently, saith the Lord. These evil things hath my people done. They have forsaken the fountain of living water, and have dug out for themselves worn-out wells, which could not hold water. Thy love hath smitten thee, and thy wickedness shall accuse thee. And know and see that it shall be a bitter thing for thee that thou hast forsaken me, saith the Lord thy God, and thou hast not hoped in me, saith thy Lord. Because of old time thou hast resented my yoke, and hast broken thy bonds, and hast said, I will not serve, but I will go upon every lofty mountain, and upon every high hill, and upon every shady tree: there I will be confounded with fornication. To the wood and to the stone they have said, Thou art my father; and to the stone, Thou hast begotten me: and they turned to me their back, and not their face.” (Jer_10:2-5, Jer_10:9, Jer_10:11, Jer_2:12, Jer_2:13, Jer_2:19, Jer_2:20, Jer_2:27) In Isaiah: “The dragon hath fallen or is dissolved; their carved works have become as beasts and cattle. Labouring and hungry, and without strength, ye shall bear them bound upon your neck as a heavy burden.” (Isa_46:1, Isa_46:2, Isa_46:5) And again: “Gathered together, they shall not be able to be saved from war; but they themselves have been led captive with thee.”363 And again: “To whom have ye likened me? See and understand that ye err in your heart, who lavish gold out of the bag, and weigh silver in the balance, bringing it up to the weight. The workmen have made with their hand the things made; and, bowing themselves, they have adored it, and have raised it on their shoulders: and thus they walked. But if they should place them down, they will abide in their place, and will not be moved; and they will not hear those who cry unto them: they will not save them from evils.” (Isa_46:6, Isa_46:7) Also in Jeremiah: “The Lord, who made heaven and earth, in strength hath ordered the world, in His wisdom hath stretched forth the heaven, and the multitude of the waters in the heaven. He hath brought out the clouds from the end of the earth, the lightnings in the clouds; and He hath brought forth the winds from His treasures. Every man is made foolish by his knowledge, every artificer is confounded by his graven images; because he hath molten a falsehood: there is no breath in them. The works shut up in them are made vain; in the time of their consideration they shall perish.” (Jer_51:16-17) And in the Apocalypse: “And the sixth angel sounded with his trumpet. And I heard one of the four corners of the golden ark, which is in the presence of God, saying to the sixth angel who had the trumpet, Loose the four angels which are bound upon the great river Euphrates. And the four angels were loosed, which were prepared for an hour, and a day, and a month, and a year, to slay the third part of men; and the number of the army of the horsemen was two hundred thousand of thousand: I heard the number of them. And then I saw the horses in the vision, and those that sate upon them, having breastplates of fire, and of hyacinth, and of sulphur: and the heads of the horses (as the heads of lions); and out of their mouth went fire, and smoke, and sulphur. By these three plagues the third part of men was slain, by the fire, and the smoke, and the sulphur which went forth from their mouth, and is in their tails: for their tails were like unto eels; for they had heads, and with them they do mischief. And the rest of the men who were not slain by these plagues, nor repented of the works of the deeds of their hands, that they should not worship demons and idols, that is, images of gold, and of silver, and of brass, and of stone, and of wood, which can neither see nor walk, repented not also of their, murders.” (Rev_9:1, Rev_9:13-21) Also in the same place: “And the third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, If any man worship the beast and his image, and hath received his mark in his forehead or upon his hand, the same shall drink of the wine of His wrath, and shall be punished with fire and sulphur, under the eyes of the holy angels, and under the eyes of the Lamb; and the smoke of their torments shall ascend up for ever and ever.” (Rev_14:9-11)
60. That too great lust of food is not to be desired.
In Isaiah: “Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we shall die. This sin shall not be remitted to you even until ye die.” (Isa_22:13, Isa_22:14) Also in Exodus: “And the people sate down to eat and drink, and rose up to play.” (Exo_32:6) Paul, in the first to the Corinthians: “Meat commendeth us not to God; neither if we eat shall we abound, nor if we eat not shall we want.” (1Co_8:8). And again: “When ye come together to eat, wait one for another. If any is hungry, let him eat at home, that ye may not come together for judgment.” (1Co_11:33) Also to the Romans: “The kingdom of God is not meat and drink, but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost.” (Rom_14:17) In the Gospel according to John: “I have meat which ye know not of. My meat is, that I should do His will who sent me, and should finish His work.” (Joh_4:32, Joh_4:34)
61. That the lust of possessing, and money, are not to be sought for.
In Solomon, in Ecclesiasticus: “He that loveth silver shall not be satisfied with silver.” (Sirach 5:10) Also in Proverbs: “He who holdeth back the corn is cursed among the people; but blessing is on the head of him that communicateth it.” (Pro_11:26) Also in Isaiah: “Woe unto them who join house to house, and lay field to field, that they may take away something from their neighbour. Will ye dwell alone upon the earth? (Isa_5:8) Also in Zephaniah: “They shall build houses, and shall not dwell in them; and they shall appoint vineyards, and shall not drink the wine of them, because the day of the Lord is near.” (Zep_1:13, Zep_1:14) Also in the Gospel according to Luke: “For what does it profit a man to make a gain of the whole world, but that he should lose himself?” (Luk_9:25) And again: “But the Lord said unto him, Thou fool, this night thy soul is required of thee. Whose, then, shall those things be which thou hast provided?” (Luk_12:20) And again: “Remember that thou hast received thy good things in this life, and likewise Lazarus evil things. But now he is besought, and thou grievest.” (Luk_16:25) And in the Acts of the Apostles: “But Peter said unto him, Silver and gold indeed I have not; but what I have I give unto you: In the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, rise up and walk. And, taking hold of his right hand, he lifted him up.” (Act_3:6) Also in the first to Timothy: “We brought nothing into this world, but neither can we take anything away. Therefore, having maintenance and clothing, let us with these be content. But they who will become rich fall into temptation and a snare, and many and hurtful lusts, which drown man in perdition and destruction. For the root of all evils is covetousness, which some coveting, have made shipwreck from the faith, and have plunged themselves in many sorrows.” (1Ti_6:7-10)
62. That marriage is not to be contracted with Gentiles.
In Tobit: “Take a wife from the seed of thy parents, and take not a strange woman who is not of the tribe of thy parents.” (Tobit 4:12) Also in Genesis, Abraham sends his servant to take from his seed Rebecca, for his son Isaac. Also in Esdras, it was not sufficient for God when the Jews were laid waste, unless they forsook their foreign wives, with the children also whom they had begotten of them. Also in the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: “The woman is bound so long as her husband liveth; but if he die, she is freed to marry whom she will, only in the Lord. But she will be happier if she abide thus.” (1Co_7:39, 1Co_7:40) And again: “Know ye not that your bodies are the members of Christ? Shall I take the members of Christ, and make them the members of an harlot? Far be it from me. Or know ye not that he who is joined together with an harlot is one body? for two shall be in one flesh. But he who is joined to the Lord is one spirit.” (1Co_6:15-17) Also in the second to the Corinthians: “Be not joined together with unbelievers. For what participation is there between righteousness and unrighteousness? or what communication hath light with darkness?” (2Co_6:14) Also concerning Solomon in the third book of Kings: “And foreign wives turned away his heart after their gods.” (1Ki_11:4)364
63. That the sin of fornication is grievous.
In the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: “Every sin whatsoever a man doeth is outside the body; but he who committeth fornication sinneth against his own body. Ye are not your own, for ye are bought with a great price. Glorify and bear the Lord in your body.” (1Co_6:18-20)
64. What are those carnal things which beget death, and what are the spiritual things which lead to life.
Paul to the Galatians: “The flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: for these are contrary the one to the other, that ye cannot do even those things which ye wish. But the deeds of the flesh are manifest, which are: adulteries, fornications, impurities, filthiness, idolatries, sorceries, murders, hatreds, strifes, emulations, animosities, provocations, hatreds, dissensions, heresies, envyings, drunkenness, revellings, and such like: with respect to which I declare, that they who do such things shall not possess the kingdom of God. But the fruit of the Spirit is charity, joy, peace, magnanimity, goodness, faith, gentleness, continency, chastity. For they who are Christ’s have crucified their flesh, with its vices and lusts.” (Gal_5:17-24)
65. That all sins are put away in baptism.
In the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: “Neither fornicators, nor those who serve idols, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor the lusters after mankind, nor thieves, nor cheaters, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor robbers, shall obtain the kingdom of God. And these things indeed ye were: but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, and in the Spirit of our God.”(1Co_6:9-11)
66. That the discipline of God is to be observed in Church precepts.
In Jeremiah: “And I will give to you shepherds according to my own heart; and they shall feed the sheep, feeding them with discipline.” (Jer_3:15) Also in Solomon, in the Proverbs: “My son neglect not the discipline of God, nor fail when rebuked by Him. For whom God loveth, He rebuketh.” (Pro_3:11, Pro_3:12) Also in the second Psalm: “Keep discipline, lest perchance the Lord should be angry, and ye perish from the right way, when His anger shall burn up quickly against you. Blessed are all they who trust in Him.” (Psa_2:1-12:19) Also in the forty-ninth Psalm: “But to the sinner saith God, For what dost thou set forth my judgments, and takest my covenant into thy mouth? But thou hatest discipline, and hast cast my words behind thee.” (Psa_50:16) Also in the Wisdom of Solomon: “He who casteth away discipline is miserable.” (Wisdom of Solomon 3:11)
67. That it was foretold that men should despise sound discipline.
Paul, in the second to Timothy: “There will be a time when they will not endure sound doctrine; but according to their own lusts will heap to themselves teachers itching in hearing, tickling their ears; and shall turn away their hearing indeed from the truth, but they shall be converted unto fables.” (2Ti_4:3, 2Ti_4:4)
68. That we must depart from him who lives irregularly and contrary to discipline.
Paul to the Thessalonians: “But we have commanded you, in the name of Jesus Christ, that ye depart from all brethren who walk disorderly, and not according to the tradition which they have received from us.” (2Th_3:6)365 Also in the forty-ninth Psalm: “If thou sawest a thief, at once thou rannest with him, and placedst thy portion with the adulterers.” (Psa_50:18)
69. That the kingdom of God is not in the wisdom of the world, nor in eloquence, but in the faith of the cross, and in virtue of conversation.
In the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: “Christ sent me to preach, not in wisdom of discourse, lest the cross of Christ should become of no effect. For the word of the cross is foolishness to those who perish; but to those who are saved it is the power of God. For it is written, I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and I will reprove the prudence of the prudent. Where is the wise? where is the scribe? where is the disputer of this world? Hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world? Since indeed, in the wisdom of God, the world by wisdom knew not God, it pleased God by the foolishness of preaching to save them that believe. Because the Jews desire signs, and the Greeks seek for wisdom: but we preach Christ crucified, to the Jews indeed a stumbling-block, and to the Gentiles foolishness; but to them that are called, Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God, and the wisdom of God.” (1Co_1:17-24) And again “Let no man deceive himself. If any man think that he is wise among you, let him become a fool to this world, that he may be wise. For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written, Thou shall rebuke the wise in their own craftiness.” (1Co_3:18-20) And again: “The Lord knoweth the thoughts of the wise, that they are foolish.” (Psa_94:11)
70. That we must obey parents.
In the Epistle of Paul to the Ephesians: “Children, be obedient to your parents: for this is right. Honour thy father and thy mother (which is the first command with promise), that it may be well with thee, and thou mayest be long-lived on the earth.” (Eph_6:1-3)
71. And that fathers also should not be harsh in respect of their children.
Also in the same place: “And, ye fathers, drive not your children to wrath: but nourish them in the discipline and rebuke of the Lord.” (Eph_6:4)
72. That servants, when they have believed, ought to serve their carnal masters the better.
In the Epistle of Paul to the Ephesians: “Servants, obey your fleshly masters with fear and trembling, and in simplicity of your heart, as to Christ; not serving for the eye, as if you were pleasing men; but as servants of God.” (Eph_6:5-6)
73. Moreover, that masters should be the more gentle.
Also in the same place: “And, ye masters, do the same things to them, forbearing anger: knowing that both your Master and theirs is in heaven; and there is no choice of persons with Him.” (Eph_6:9)
74. That all widows that are approved are to be held in honour.
In the first Epistle of Paul to Timothy: “Honour widows which are truly widows. But the widow that is wanton, is dead while she liveth.” (1Ti_5:3-6) And again: “But the younger widows pass by: for when they shall be wanton in Christ, they wish to marry; having judgment, because they have cast off their first faith.” (1Ti_5:11, 1Ti_5:12)
75. That every person ought to have care rather of his own people, and especially of believers.
The apostle in his first Epistle to Timothy: “But if any take not care of his own, and especially of those of his own household, he denies the faith, and is worse than an infidel.” (1Ti_5:8) Of this same thing in Isaiah: “If thou shalt see the naked, clothe him; and despise not those who are of the household of thine own seed.” (Isa_58:7) Of which members of the household it is said in the Gospel: “If they have called the master of the house Beelzebub, how much rather them of his household!” (Mat_10:25)
76. That an elder must not be rashly accused.
In the first to Timothy: “Against an elder receive not all accusation.” (1Ti_5:19)
77. That the sinner must be publicly reproved.
In the first Epistle of Paul to Timothy: “Rebuke them that sin in the presence of all, that others also may be afraid.” (1Ti_5:20)
78. That we must not speak with heretics.
To Titus: “A man that is an heretic, after one rebuke avoid; knowing that one of such sort is perverted, and sinneth, and is by his own self condemned.” (Tit_3:10, Tit_3:11) Of this same thing in the Epistle of John: “They went out from among us, but they were not of us; for if they had been of us, they would doubtless have remained with us.” (1Jo_2:19) Also in the second to Timothy: “Their word doth creep as a canker.” (2Ti_2:17)
79. That innocency asks with confidence, and obtains.
In the Epistle of John: “If our heart blame us not, we have confidence towards God; and whatever we ask, we shall receive from Him.” (1Jo_2:21, 1Jo_2:22) Also in the Gospel according to Matthew: “Blessed are they of a pure heart, for they shall see God.” (Mat_5:8) Also in the twenty-third Psalm: “Who shall ascend into the hill of the Lord? or who shall stand in His holy place? The innocent in hands and of a pure heart.” (Psa_24:3, Psa_24:4)
80. That the devil has no power against man unless God have allowed it.
In the Gospel according to John: “Jesus said, Thou couldest have no power against me, unless it were given thee from above.” (Joh_19:11) Also in the third of Kings: “And God stirred up Satan against Solomon himself.” (1Ki_11:23) Also in Job, first of all God permitted, and then it was allowed to the devil; and in the Gospel, the Lord first permitted, by saying to Judas, “What thou doest, do quickly.” (Joh_13:27) Also in Solomon, in the Proverbs: “‘The heart of the king is in God’s hand.” (Pro_21:1)
81. That wages be quickly paid to the hireling.
In Leviticus: “The wages of thy hireling shall not sleep with thee until the morning.” (Lev_19:13)
82. That divination must not be used.
In Deuteronomy: “Do not use omens nor auguries.” (Deu_18:10)
83. That a tuft of hair is not to be worn on the head.
In Leviticus: “Ye shall not make a tuft from the hair of your head.” (Lev_19:27) [See p. 530, supra, the note and reference.]
84. That the beard must not be plucked.
“Ye shall not deface the figure of your beard.” (Lev_19:27) [compare Clement, vol. 2. p. 280, this series.]
85. That we must rise when a bishop or a presbyter comes.
In Leviticus: “Thou shalt rise up before the face of the elder, and shall honour the person of the presbyter.” (Lev_19:32)
86. That a schism must not be made, even although he who withdraws should remain in one faith, and in the same tradition.
In Ecclesiasticus, in Solomon: “He that cleaveth firewood shall be endangered by it if the iron shall fall off.” (Sirach 10:9) Also in Exodus: “In one house shall it be eaten: ye shall not cast forth the flesh abroad out of the house.” (Exo_12:4) Also in the 132d Psalm: “Behold how good and how pleasant a thing it is that brethren should dwell in unity!” (Psa_133:1) Also in the Gospel according to Matthew: “He that is not with me is against me; and he that gathereth not with me scattereth.” (Mat_12:30) Also in the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: “But I beseech you, brethren, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye all say the same thing, and that there be no schisms among you; but that ye be all joined together in the same mind and in the same opinion.” (1Co_1:10) Also in the sixty-seventh Psalm: “God, who maketh men to dwell with one mind in a house.” (Psa_68:6) [So Vulgate and Anglican Psalter.]
87. That believers ought to be simple, with prudence.
In the Gospel according to Matthew: “Be ye prudent as serpents, and simple as doves.” (Mat_10:16) And again: “Ye are the salt of the earth. But if the salt have lost his savour, in what shall it be salted? It is good for nothing, but to be cast out abroad, and to be trodden under foot of men.” (Mat_5:13)
88. That a brother must not be deceived.
In the first Epistle of Paul to the Thessalonians: “That a man do not deceive his brother in a matter, because God is the avenger for all these.” (1Th_4:6)
89. That the end of the world comes suddenly.
The apostle says: “The day of the Lord shall so come as a thief in the night. When they shall say, Peace and security, then on them shall come sudden destruction.” (1Th_5:2, 1Th_5:3) Also in the Acts of the Apostles: “No one can know the times or the seasons which the Father has placed in His own power.” (Act_1:7)
90. That a wife must not depart from her husband; or if she should depart, she must remain unmarried.
In the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: “But to them that are married I command, yet not I, but the Lord, that the wife should not be separated from her husband; but if she should depart, that she remain unmarried or be reconciled to her husband: and that the husband should not put away his wife.” (1Co_7:10, 1Co_7:11)
91. That every one is tempted so much as he is able to bear.
In the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians:” No temptation shall take you, except such is human. But God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able; but will with the temptation also make a way to escape, that ye may be able to bear it.” (1Co_10:13)
92. That not everything is to be done which is lawful.
Paul, in the first Epistle to the Corinthians: “All things are lawful, but all things are not expedient: all things are lawful, but all things edify not.” (1Co_10:23)
93. That it was foretold that heresies would arise.
In the first epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: “Heresies must needs be, in order that they which are approved may be made manifest among you.” (1Co_11:19)
94. That the Eucharist is to be received with fear and honour.366
In Leviticus: “But whatever soul shall eat of the flesh of the sacrifice of salvation, which is the Lord’s, and his uncleanness is still upon him, that soul shall perish from his people.” (Lev_7:20) Also in the first to the Corinthians: “Whosoever shall eat the bread or drink the cup of the Lord unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord.” (1Co_11:27)
95. That we are to live with the good, but to avoid the evil.
In Solomon, in the Proverbs: “Bring not the impious man into the habitation of the righteous.” (Pro_24:15) Also in the same, in Ecclesiasticus: “Let righteous men be thy guests.” (Sirach 9:16) And again: “The faithful friend is a medicine of life and of immortality.” (Sirach 6:16) Also in the same place: “Be thou far from the man who has the power to slay, and thou shalt not suspect fear.” (Sirach 9:13) Also in the same place,: “Blessed is he who findeth a true friend, and who speaketh righteousness to the listening ear.” (Sirach 25:9) Also in the same place: “Hedge thine ears with thorns, and hear not a wicked tongue.” (Sirach 28:24) Also in the seventeenth Psalm: “With the righteous Thou shalt be justified; and with the innocent man Thou shalt be innocent; and with the froward man Thou shalt be froward.” (Psa_18:25, Psa_18:26) Also in the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: “Evil communications corrupt good dispositions.” (1Co_15:33)
348 The whole of this quotation, as it is called, from Baruch, is wanting in all codices but two. It is remarkable, as finding no place in any text of Scripture, not in any translation, whether Greek or Latin.
349 Personales fidei. This, like many other expressions in this strange passage, gives no clue to a meaning.
350 Unice; but some read unigeniti, “only-begotten.”
351 [This section is confined to scripture, and goes not beyond the word of the Divine Wisdom, as do some of the Fathers.]
352 The Oxford text reads “deliciis” instead of “delictis,” – making the last clause, “and have walked in delicacies.”
353 [This limitation to “Pontus” is curious.]
354 [Gr. ὡς ἀλλοτριοεπίσκοπος; a strange expression. This is St. Paul’s canon (Greek) of jursidiction, which he expounds, 2Co_10:13, 2Co_10:14. Comp. Gal_2:9. Showing, by the way, the limits of Peter’s jurisdiction, “measure,” or μετρόν τοῦ κανόνος. Note 353, p. 544, supra.]
355 [The oath on the Bible in our courts, and other Christian forms, are important in Christian morals, as bearing upon our right to seek redress at the law, while it is Christian law.]
356 Some read “exspectamus,” “we wait for it.”
357 [Women might have spiritual gifts, like the daughters of Philip, Act_21:9; but even such are here forbidden to use them in the public worship of the Church.]
358 The Oxford edition has “the fourteenth.” [Elucidation XIII.]
359 [Hab_1:16; Psa_131:1]
360 [The aphoristic force of these “heads” is often striking in the original; e.g., “Dei arcana perspici non posse, et ideo fidem nostram simplicem esse debere.”]
361 Some read “amabiles,” “amiable.”
362 This section closes here, according to the Oxford text. The Leipzic edition continues as in the above reading.
363 Migne refers this to Jer_51:15-18, but there is nothing corresponding to it in the passage.
364 [Surely this principle is important in teaching fathers and mothers how to guard the social relations of children.]
365 [A very noteworthy safeguard of apostolic ordinances; but mark the charity with which it is softened, 2Th_3:14-15. Compare also 2Th_2:15]
366 [Note, not to be worshipped, but received.]