Treatise XII. – Three Books of Testimonies Against the Jews. (Cont.)
Second Book. (Cont.)
7. That Christ our God should come, the Enlightener and Saviour of the human race.
In Isaiah: “Be comforted, ye weakened hands; and ye weak knees, be strengthened. Ye who are of a timorous heart, fear not. Our God will recompense judgment, He Himself will come, and will save us. Then shall be opened the eves of the blind, and the ears of the deaf shall hear. Then the lame man shall leap as a stag, and the tongue of the dumb shall be intelligible; because in the wilderness the water is broken forth, and the stream in the thirsty land.” (Isa_35:3-6) Also in that place: “Not an elder nor an angel, but the Lord Himself shall deliver them; because He shall love them, and shall spare them, and He Himself shall redeem them. (Isa_63:9) Also in the same place: “I the Lord God have called Thee in righteousness, that I may hold Thine hand, and I will comfort Thee; and I have given Thee for a covenant of my people, for a light of the nations; to open the eyes of the blind, to bring forth them that are bound from chains, and those who sit in darkness from the prison-house. I am the Lord God, that is my name. I will not: give any glory to another, nor my powers to given images.” (Isa_42:6-8) Also in the twenty-fourth Psalm: “Show me Thy ways, O Lord, and teach me Thy paths, and lead me unto Thy truth, and teach me; for Thou art the God of my salvation.” (Psa_25:4, Psa_25:5) Whence, in the Gospel according to John, the Lord says: “I am the light of the world. He that will follow me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life.” (Joh_8:12) Moreover, in that according to Matthew, the angel Gabriel says to Joseph: “Joseph, thou son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife. For that which shall be born to her is of the Holy Ghost. And she shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call His name Jesus; for He shall save His people from their sins.” (Mat_1:20, Mat_1:21) Also in that according to Luke: “And Zacharias was filled with the Holy Ghost, and prophesied, saying, Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, who hath foreseen redemption for His people, and hath raised up an horn of salvation for us in the house of His servant David.” (Luk_1:67-69) Also in the same place, the angel said to the shepherds: “Fear not; for, behold, I bring you tidings that unto you is born this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is Christ Jesus.” (Luk_2:10, Luk_2:11)
8. That although from the beginning He had been the Son of God, yet He had to be begotten again according to the flesh.
In the second Psalm: “The Lord said unto me, Thou art my Son; this day have I begotten Thee. Ask of me, and I will give Thee the nations for Thine inheritance, and the bounds of the earth for Thy possession.” (Psa_2:7, Psa_2:8) Also in the Gospel according to Luke: “And it came to pass, when Elisabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the babe leaped in her womb; and she was filled with the Holy Ghost, and she cried out with a loud voice, and said, Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb. And whence does this happen to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me?” (Luk_1:41-43) Also Paul to the Galatians: “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent His Son, horn of a woman.” (Gal_4:4) Also in the Epistle of John: “Every spirit which confesses that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is of God. But whosoever denies that He is come in the flesh is not of God, but is of the spirit of Antichrist.” (1Jo_4:2, 1Jo_4:3)
9. That this should be the sign of His nativity, that He should be born of a virgin – man and God – a son of man and a Son of God.
In Isaiah: “And the Lord went on to speak to Ahaz, saying, Ask thee a sign from the Lord thy God, in the height above and in the depth below. And Ahaz said, I will not ask, and I will not tempt the Lord my God. And He said, Hear ye, therefore, O house of David: it is no trifling contest unto you with men, since God supplies the struggle. On this account God Himself will give you a sign. Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and shall bear a son, and ye shall call His name Emmanuel. Butter and honey shall He eat; before that He knows to prefer the evil, He shall exchange the good.” (Luk_7:10-15)305 This seed God had foretold would proceed from the woman that should trample on the head of the devil. In Genesis: “Then God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, cursed art thou from every kind of the beasts of the earth. Upon thy breast and thy belly shalt thou crawl, and earth shall be thy food all the days of thy life. And I will place enmity between thee and the woman and her seed. He shall regard thy head, and thou shalt watch his heel.” (Gen_3:14, Gen_3:15)
10. That Christ is both man and God, compounded of both natures, that He might be a Mediator between us and the Father.
In Jeremiah: “And He is man, and who shall know Him? (Jer_17:9) Also in Numbers: “A Star shall arise out of Jacob, and a man shall rise up from Israel.” (Num_24:17) Also in the same place: “A Man shall go forth out of his seed,306 and shall rule over many nations; and His kingdom shall be exalted as Gog,307 and His kingdom shall be increased; and God brought Him forth out of Egypt. His glory is as of the unicorn, and He shall eat the nations of His enemies, and shall take out the marrow of their fatnesses, and will pierce His enemy with His arrows. He couched and lay down as a lion, and as a lion’s whelp. Who shall raise Him up? Blessed are they who bless Thee, and cursed are they who curse Thee.” (Num_24:7-9) Also in Isaiah: “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me; on account whereof He hath anointed me: He hath sent me to tell good tidings to the poor; to heal the bruised in heart, to preach deliverance to the captives, and sight to the blind, to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord, and the day of retribution.” (Isa_61:1, Isa_61:2) Whence, in the Gospel according to Luke, Gabriel says to Mary: “And the angel, answering, said to her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee. Wherefore that holy thing which is born of thee shall be called the Son of God.” (Luk_1:35) Also in the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: “The first man is of the mud308 of the earth; the second man is from heaven. As was he from the soil, such are they also that are of the earth; and as is the heavenly, such also are the heavenly. As we have borne the image of him who is of the earth, let us also bear the image of Him who is from heaven.” (1Co_15:47-49)
11. That Christ was to be born of the seed of David, according to the flesh.
In the second of Kings: “And the word of the Lord came to Nathan, saying, Go and tell my servant David, Thus saith the Lord, Thou shall not build me an house to dwell in; but it shall come to pass, when thy days shall be fulfilled, and thou shall sleep with thy fathers, I will raise up thy seed after thee who shall come from thy loins, and I will establish His kingdom. He shall build me a house in my name, and I will set up His throne for ever; and I will be to; Him a Father, and He shall be to me a Son; and His house shall obtain confidence, and His kingdom for ever in my sight.” (2Sa_7:5, 2Sa_7:12-16) Also in Isaiah: “And a rod shall go forth of the root of Jesse, and a flower shall go up from his root; and the Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon Him, the spirit of wisdom and of understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and piety; and the spirit of the fear of the Lord shall fill Him.” (Isa_11:1-3) Also in the 131st Psalm: “God hath sworn the truth unto David himself, and He has not repudiated it; of the fruit of thy belly will I set upon my throne.” (Psa_132:11) Also in the Gospel according to Luke: “And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary. For thou hast found favour before God. Behold, thou shall conceive, and shalt bring forth a son, and shalt call His name Jesus. The same shall be great, and He shall be called the Son of the Highest; and the Lord God shall give Him the throne of His father David, and He shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever, and of His kingdom there shall be no end.” (Luk_1:30-33) Also in the Apocalypse: “And I saw in the right hand of God, who sate on the throne, a book written within, and on the back sealed with seven seals; and I saw a strong angel proclaiming with a loud voice, Who is worthy to receive the book, and to open its seals? Nor was there any one either in heaven or upon the earth, or under the earth, who was able to open the book, nor even to look into it. And I wept much because nobody was found worthy to open the book, nor to look into it. And one of the elders said unto me, Weep not; behold, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, hath prevailed to open the book, and to loose its seven seals.” (Rev_5:1-5)
12. That Christ should be born in Bethlehem.
In Micah: “And thou, Bethlehem, house of Ephrata, art not little, that thou shouldst be appointed among the thousands of Judah. Out of thee shall He come forth to me, that He may be a prince in Israel, and His goings forth from the beginning from the days of old.” (Mic_5:2) Also in the Gospel: “And when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judah, in the days of Herod the king, behold, Magi came from the east to Jerusalem, saying, Where is He that is born King of the Jews? For we have seen His star in the east, and we have come with gifts to worship Him.” (Mat_2:1, Mat_2:2)
13. That Christ was to come in low estate in His first advent.
In Isaiah: “Lord, who hath believed our report, and to whom is the Arm of the Lord revealed? We have declared in His presence as children, as a root in a thirsty ground. There is no form nor glory in Him; and we saw Him, and He had no form nor beauty; but His form was without honour, and lacking beyond other men. He was a man set in a plague, and knowing how to bear weakness; because His face was turned away, He was dishonoured, and was not accounted of. He bears our sins, and grieves for us; and we thought that He was in grief, and in wounding, and in affliction; but He was wounded for our transgressions, and He was weakened309 for our sins. The discipline of our peace was upon Him, and with His bruise we are healed. We all like sheep have gone astray; than has gone out of his way. And God has delivered Him for our sins; and He, because He was afflicted, opened not His mouth.” (Isa_53:1-7) [see p. 516, supra.] Also in the same: “I am not rebellious, nor do I contradict. I gave my back to the stripes, and my cheeks to the palms of the hands. Moreover, I did not turn away my Gee from the foulness of spitting, and God was my helper.” (Isa_50:5-7) Also in the same: “He shall not cry, nor will any one hear His voice in the streets. He shall not break a bruised reed, and a smoking flax He shall not extinguish; but He shall bring forth judgment in truth. He shall shine forth, and shall not be shaken, until He set judgment in the earth, and in His name shall the nations trust.” (Isa_42:2-4) Also in the twenty-first Psalm: “But I am a worm, and no man; the accursed of man, and the casting away of the people. All they who saw me despised me, and spoke within their lips, and moved their head. He hoped in the Lord, let Him deliver him; let Him save him, since he will have Him.” (Psa_22:6-8) Also in that place: “My strength is dried up like a potsherd, and my tongue is glued to my jaws.” (Psa_22:15) Also in Zechariah: “And the Lord showed me Jesus, that great priest, standing before the face of the Angel of the Lord, and the devil was standing at his right hand to oppose him. And Jesus was clothed in filthy garments, and he stood before the face of the Angel Himself; and He answered and said to them who were standing before His face, saying, Take away his filthy garments from him. And he said to him, Behold, I have taken away thine iniquities. And put upon him a priestly garment,310 and set a fair mitre311 upon his head.” (Zec_3:1, Zec_3:3, Zec_3:5) Also Paul to the Philippians: “Who, being established in the form of God, thought it not robbery that He was equal with God, but emptied Himself, taking the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men; and being found in fashion as a man, He humbled Himself, becoming obedient even unto death, even the death of the cross. Wherefore also God exalted Him, and gave Him a name which is above every name, that in the name312 of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, of things in earth, and of infernal things, and every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord in the glory of God the Father.” (Phi_2:6-11)
14. That He is the righteous One whom the Jews should put to death.
In the Wisdom of Solomon: “Let us lay hold of the righteous, because He is disagreeable to us, and is contrary to our works, and reproacheth us with our transgressions of the law.313 He professeth that He has the knowledge of God, and calls Himself the Son of God; He has become to us an exposure of our thoughts; He is grievous unto us even to look upon, because His life is unlike to others, and His ways are changed. We are esteemed by Him as frivolous, and He restraineth Himself from our ways, as if from uncleanness; and He extols the last end of the righteous, and boasts that He has God for His Father. Let us see, then, if His words are true, and let us try what will come to Him. Let us interrogate Him with reproach and torture, that we may know His reverence and prove His patience. Let us condemn Him with a most shameful death. These things they considered, and erred. For their maliciousness hath blinded them, and they knew not the sacraments of God.” (Wisdom of Solomon 2:12-22) Also in Isaiah: “See ye how the righteous perisheth, and no man understandeth; and righteous men are taken away, and no man regardeth. For the righteous man is taken away from the face of unrighteousness, and his burial shall be in peace.” (Isa_57:1, Isa_57:2) [Justin, vol. 1. p. 203.] Concerning this very thing it was before foretold in Exodus: “Thou shalt not slay the innocent and the righteous.” (Exo_23:7) Also in the Gospel: “Judas, led by penitence, said to the priests and elders, I have sinned, in that I have betrayed the innocent blood.” (Mat_27:3, Mat_27:4)
15. That Christ is called a sheep and a lamb who was to be slain, and concerning the sacrament (mystery) of the passion.
In Isaiah: “He was led as a sheep to the slaughter, and as a lamb before his shearer is dumb, so He opened not His mouth. In His humiliation His judgment was taken away: who shall relate His nativity? Because His life shall i be taken away from the earth. By the transgressions of my people He was led to death; and I will give the wicked for His burial, and the rich themselves for His death; because He did no wickedness, nor deceits with His mouth. Wherefore He shall gain many, and shall divide the spoils of the strong; because His soul was delivered up to death, and He was counted among transgressors. And He bare the sins of many, and was delivered for their offences.” (Isa_53:7-9, Isa_53:12) Also in Jeremiah: “Lord, give me knowledge, and I shall know it: then I saw their meditations. I was led like a lamb without malice to the slaughter; against me they devised a device, saying, Come, let us cast the tree into His bread,314 and let us erase His life from the earth, and His name shall no more be a remembrance.” (Jer_11:18, Jer_11:19) Also in Exodus God said to Moses: “Let them take to themselves each man a sheep, through the houses of the tribes, a sheep without blemish, perfect, male, of a year old it shall be to you. Ye shall take it from the lambs and from the goats, and all the congregation of the synagogue of the children of Israel shall kill it in the evening; and they shall take of its blood, and shall place it upon the two posts,315 and upon the threshold in the houses, in the very houses in which they shall eat it. And they shall eat the flesh on the same night, roasted with fire; and they shall eat unleavened bread with bitter herbs.316 Ye shall not eat of them raw nor dressed in water, but roasted with fire; the head with the feet and the inward parts. Ye shall leave nothing of them to the morning; and ye shall not break a bone of it. But what of it shall be left to the morning shall be burnt with fire. But thus ye shall eat it; your loins girt, and your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hands; and ye shall eat it in haste: for it is the Lord’s passover.” (Exo_12:3-12) Also in the Apocalypse: “And I saw in the midst of the throne, and of the four living creatures, and in the midst of the elders, a Lamb standing as if slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven spirits of God sent forth throughout all the earth. And He came and took the book from the right hand of God, who sate on the throne. And when He had taken the book, the four living creatures and the four and twenty elders cast themselves before the Lamb, having every one of them harps and golden cups317 full of odours of supplications, which are the prayers of the saints; and they sang a new song, saying, Worthy art Thou, O Lord, to take the book, and to open its seals: for Thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us with Thy blood from every tribe, and people, and nation; and Thou hast made us a kingdom unto our God, and hast made us priests, and they shall reign upon the earth.” (Rev_5:6-10) Also in the Gospel: “On the next day John saw Jesus coming to him, and saith, Behold the Lamb of God, and behold Him that taketh away the sins of the world!” (Joh_1:29)
16. That Christ also is called a Stone.
In Isaiah: “Thus saith the Lord, Behold, I place on the foundations of Sion a precious stone, elect, chief, a corner stone, honourable; and he who trusteth in Him shall not be confounded.” (Isa_28:16)318 Also in the 117th Psalm: “The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner. This is done by the Lord, and it is wonderful in our eyes. This is the day, which the Lord hath made; let us rejoice and be glad in it. O Lord, save therefore, O Lord, direct therefore. Blessed is He who cometh in the name of the Lord.” (Psa_118:21-26) Also in Zechariah: “Behold, I bring forth my servant. The Orient is his name, because the stone which I have placed before the face of Jesus; upon that one stone are seven eyes.” (Zec_3:8, Zec_3:9) Also in Deuteronomy: “And thou shall write upon the stone all this law, very plainly.” (Deu_27:8) Also in Jesus the son of Nave: “And he took a great stone, and placed it there before the Lord; and Jesus said unto the people, Behold, this stone shall be to you for a testimony, because it hath heard all the things which were spoken by the Lord, which He hath spoken to you to-day; and it shall be for a testimony to you in the last of the days, when ye shall have departed from your God.” (Jos_24:26, Jos_24:27) Also in the Acts of the Apostles, Peter: “Ye princes of the people, and elders of Israel, hearken: Behold, we are this day interrogated by you about the good deed done to the impotent man, by means of which he is made whole. Be it known unto you all, and to all the people of Israel, that in the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom ye have crucified, whom God hath raised up from the dead, by Him he stands whole in your presence, but by none other. This is the stone which was despised by you builders, which has become the head of the corner. For there is no other name given to men under heaven in which we must be saved.” (Act_4:8-12) This is the stone in Genesis, which Jacob places at his head, because the head of the man is Christ; and as he slept he saw a ladder reaching to heaven, on which the Lord was placed, and angels were ascending and descending.319 And this stone he designating Christ consecrated and anointed with the sacrament of unction. This is the stone in Exodus upon which Moses sate on the top of a hill when Jesus the son of Nave fought against Amalek; and by the sacrament of the stone, and the stedfastness of his sitting, Amalek was overcome by Jesus, that is, the devil was overcome by Christ. This is the great stone in the first book of Kings, upon which was placed the ark of the covenant when the oxen brought it back in the cart, sent back and returned by the strangers. Also, this is the stone in the first book of Kings, with which David smote the forehead of Goliath and slew him; signifying that the devil and his servants are thereby thrown down – that part of the head, namely, being conquered320 which they have not had sealed. And by this seal we also are always safe and live. This is the stone which, when Israel had conquered the aliens, Samuel set up and called its name Ebenezer; that is, the stone that helpeth.
17. That afterwards this Stone should become a mountain, and should fill the whole earth.
In Daniel: “And behold a very great image; and the aspect of this image was fearful, and it stood erect before thee; whose head was of fine gold, its breast and arms were silver, its belly and thighs were of brass, and its feet were partly indeed of iron, and partly of clay, until that a stone was cut [Hippolytus, p. 209, supra.] out of the mountain, without the hands of those that should cut it, and struck the image upon the feet of iron and clay, and brake them into small fragments. And the iron, and the clay, and the brass, and the silver, and the gold, was made altogether; and they became small as chaff, or dust in the threshing-floor in summer; and the wind blew them away, so that nothing remained of them. And the stone which struck the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth.” (Dan_2:31-35)
18. That in the last times the same mountain should be manifested, and upon it the Gentiles should come, and on it all the righteous should go up.
In Isaiah: “In the last times the mountain of the Lord shall be revealed, and the house of God upon the tops of the mountains; and it shall be exalted above the hills, and all nations shall come upon it, and many shall walk and say, Come, and let us go up into the mountain of the Lord, and into the house of the God of Jacob; and He will tell us His way, and we will walk in it. For from Sion shall proceed the law, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem; and He shall judge among the nations, and shall rebuke much people; and they shall beat their swords into ploughshares, and their spears into pruning-hooks, and they shall no more learn to fight.” (Isa_2:2-4) Also in the twenty-third Psalm: “Who shall ascend into the hill of the Lord, or who shall stand in His holy place? He that is innocent in his hands, and of a clean heart; who hath not received his life in vanity, and hath not sworn craftily to his neighbour. He shall receive the blessing from the Lord, and mercy321 from the God that saveth him. This is the generation of those who seek Him, that seek the face of the God of Jacob.” (Psa_24:3-6)
19. That Christ is the Bridegroom, having the Church as His bride, from which spiritual children were to be born.
In Joel: “Blow with the trumpet in Sion; sanctify a fast, and call a healing; assemble the people, sanctify the Church, gather the elders, collect the little ones that suck the breast; let the Bridegroom go forth of His chamber, and the bride out of her closet.” (Joe_2:15, Joe_2:16) Also in Jeremiah: “And I will take away from the cities of Judah, and from the streets of Jerusalem, the voice of the joyous, and the voice of the glad; the voice of the bridegroom, and the voice of the bride.” (Jer_16:9) Also in the eighteenth Psalm: “And he is as a bridegroom going forth from his chamber; he exulted as a giant to run his course. From the height of heaven is his going forth, and his circuit even to the end of it; and there is nothing which is hid from his heat.” (Psa_19:5, Psa_19:6) Also in the Apocalypse: “Come, I will show thee the new bride, the Lamb’s wife. And he took me in the Spirit to a great mountain, and he showed me the holy city Jerusalem descending out of heaven from God, having the glory of God.” (Rev_21:9-11) Also in the Gospel according to John: “Ye are my witnesses, that I said to them who were sent from Jerusalem to me, that I am not the Christ, but that I am sent before Him. For he who has the bride is the bridegroom; but the friend of the bridegroom is he who standeth and heareth him with joy, and rejoiceth because of the voice of the bridegroom.” (Joh_3:28-29) The mystery of this matter was shown in Jesus the son of Nave, when he was bidden to put his shoes from off him, doubt less because he himself was not the bridegroom. For it was in the law, that whoever should refuse marriage should put off his shoe, but that he should be shod who was to be the bridegroom: “And it happened, when Jesus was in Jericho, he looked around with his eyes, and saw a man standing before his face, and holding a javelin322 in his hand, and said, Art thou for us or for our enemies? And he said, I am the leader of the host of the Lord; now draw near. And Jesus fell on his rice to the earth, and said to him, Lord, what dost Thou command unto Thy servant. And the leader of the Lord’s host said, Loose thy shoe from thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground.” (Jos_5:13-15) Also, in Exodus, Moses is bidden to put off his shoe, because he, too, was not the bridegroom: “And there appeared unto him the angel of the Lord in a flame of fire out of a bush; and he saw that the bush burned with fire, but the bush was not consumed. And Moses said, I will pass over and see this great sight, why the bush is not consumed. But when He saw that he drew near to see, the Lord God called him from the bush, saying, Moses, Moses. And he said, What is it? And He said, Draw not nigh hither, unless thou hast loosed thy shoe from off thy feet; for the place on which thou standest is holy ground. And He said unto him, I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.” (Exo_3:2-6) This was also made plain in the Gospel according to John: “And John answered them, I indeed baptize with water, but there standeth One in the midst of you whom ye know not: He it is of whom I said, The man that cometh after me is made before me, the latchet of whose shoe I am not worthy to unloose.” (Joh_1:26, Joh_1:27) Also according to Luke: “Let your loins be girt, and your lamps burning, and ye like to men that wait for their master when he shall come from the wedding, that when he cometh and knocketh, they may open unto him. Blessed are those servants whom their Lord, when He cometh, shall find watching.” (Luk_12:35-37) Also in the Apocalypse: “The Lord God omnipotent reigneth: let us be glad and rejoice, and let us give to Him the honour of glory; for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and His wife hath made herself ready.” (Rev_19:6-7)
20. That the Jews would fasten Christ to the cross.
In Isaiah: “I have spread out my hands all day to a people disobedient and contradicting me, who walk in ways that are not good, but after their own sins.” (Isa_65:2) [So Justin, vol. i. pp. 179 and 206. But compare Isa_25:11, a remarkable simile.] Also in Jeremiah: “Come, let us cast the tree into His bread, and let us blot out His life from the earth.” (Jer_11:19) Also in Deuteronomy: “And Thy life shall be hanging (in doubt) before Thine eyes; and Thou shall fear day and night, and shalt not trust to Thy life.” (Deu_28:66) Also in the twenty-first Psalm: “They tore my hands and my feet;323 they numbered all my bones. And they gazed upon me, and saw me, and divided my garments among them, and upon my vesture they cast a lot. But Thou, O Lord, remove not Thy help far from me; attend unto my help. Deliver my soul from the sword, and my only one from the paw324 of the dog. Save me from the mouth of the lion, and my lowliness from the horns of the unicorns. I will declare Thy name unto my brethren; in the midst of the Church I will praise Thee.” (Psa_22:16-22) Also in the 118th Psalm: “Pierce my flesh with nails through fear of Thee.” (Psa_109:1-31:120) Also in the 140th Psalm: “The lifting up of my hands is an evening sacrifice.” (Psa_141:2) Of which sacrifice Sophonias said: “Fear from the presence of the Lord God, since His day is near, because the Lord hath prepared His sacrifice, He hath sanctified His elect.” (Zep_1:7) Also in Zechariah: “And they shall look upon me, whom they have pierced.” (Zec_12:10) Also in the eighty-seventh Psalm: “I have called unto Thee, O Lord, the whole day; I have stretched out my hands unto Thee.” (Psa_88:9) Also in Numbers: “Not as a man is God suspended, nor as the son of man does He suffer threats.” (Num_23:19) Whence in the Gospel the Lord says: “As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up, that whosoever believeth in the Son may have life eternal.” (Joh_3:14-15)
21. That in the passion and the sign of the cross is all virtue and power.
In Habakkuk: “His virtue covered the heavens, and the earth is full of His praise, and His splendour shall be as the light; there shall be horns in His hands. And there the virtue of His glory was established, and He founded His strong love. Before His face shall go the Word, and shall go forth unto the plains according to His steps.” (Hab_3:3-5) In Isaiah also: “Behold, unto us a child is born, and to us a Son is given, upon whose shoulders shall be government; and His name shall be called the Messenger of a mighty thought.” (Isa_9:6) By this sign of the cross also Amalek was conquered by Jesus through Moses. In Exodus Moses said to Jesus: “Choose thee out men, and go forth, and order yourselves with Amalek until the morrow. Behold, I will stand on the top of the hill, and the rod of God in mine hand. And it came to pass, when Moses lifted up his hands, Israel prevailed; but when Moses had let down his hands, Amalek waxed strong. But the hands of Moses were heavy; and they took a stone, and placed it under him, and he sat upon it; and Aaron and Hur held up his hands, on the one side and on the other side; and the hands of Moses were made steady even to the setting of the sun. And Jesus routed Amalek and all his people. And the Lord said unto Moses, Write this, that it may be a memorial in a book, and tell it unto the ears of Jesus, that I may utterly destroy the memory of Amalek from under heaven.” (Exo_17:9-14)
22. That in this sign of the Cross is salvation for all people who are marked on their foreheads.325
In Ezekiel the Lord says: “Pass through the midst of Jerusalem, and thou shalt mark the sign I upon the men’s foreheads, who groan and grieve for the iniquities which are done in the midst of them.” (Eze_9:4) Also in the same place: “Go and smite, and do not spare your eyes. Have no pity on the old man, and the youth, and the virgin, and slay little children and women, that they may be utterly destroyed. But ye shall not touch any one upon whom the sign is written, and begin with my holy places themselves.” (Eze_9:4-6) Also in Exodus God says to Moses: “And there shall be blood for a sign to you upon the houses wherein ye shall be; and I will look on the blood, and will protect you. And there shall not be in you the plague of wasting when I shall smite the land of Egypt.” (Exo_12:13) Also in the Apocalypse: “And I saw326 a Lamb standing on Mount Sion, and with Him a hundred and forty and four thousand; and they had His name and the name of His Father written on their foreheads.” (Rev_14:1) Also in the same place: “I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end. Blessed are they that do His commandments, that they may have power over the tree of life.” (Rev_22:13, Rev_22:14)
23. That at mid-day in His passion there should be darkness.
In Amos: “And it shall come to pass in that day, saith the Lord, the sun shall set at noonday, and the day of light shall be darkened; and I will turn your feast-days into grief, and all your songs into lamentation.” (Amo_8:9, Amo_8:10)327 Also in Jeremiah: “She is frightened that hath borne children, and her soul hath grown weary. Her sun hath gone down while as yet it was mid-day; she hath been confounded arid accursed: I will give the rest of them to the sword in the sight of their enemies.” (Jer_15:9)328 Also in the Gospel: “Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the earth even to the ninth hour.” (Mat_27:45) [see vol. 3. p. 58]
24. That He was not to be overcome of death, nor should remain in Hades.
In the twenty-ninth Psalm: “O Lord, Thou hast brought back my soul from hell.” (Psa_30:3) Also in the fifteenth Psalm: “Thou wilt not leave my soul in hell, neither wilt Thou suffer Thine Holy One to see corruption.” (Psa_16:10) Also in the third Psalm: “I laid me down and slept, and rose up again, because the Lord helped me.” Psa_3:5) Also according to John: “No man taketh away my life from me; but I lay it down of myself. I have the power of laying it down, and I have the power of taking it again. For this commandment I have received from my Father.” (Joh_10:18)
25. That He should rise again from the dead on the third day.
In Hosea: “After two days He will revive us; we shall rise again on the third day.”(Hos_6:2) Also in Exodus: “And the Lord said unto Moses, Go down and testify to the people, and sanctify them to-day and to-morrow; and let them wash their garments, and let them be prepared against the day after to-morrow. For on the third day the Lord will come down on Mount Sinai.” (Exo_19:10, Exo_19:11 Also in the Gospel: “A wicked and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given unto it but the sign of the prophet Jonas: for as Jonas was in the whale’s belly three days and three nights, so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.” (Mat_12:39, Mat_12:40)
26. That after He had risen again He should receive from His Father all power, and His power should be everlasting.
In Daniel: “I saw in a vision by night, and behold as it were the Son of man, coming in the clouds of heaven, came even to the Ancient of days, and stood in His sight. And they who stood beside Him brought Him before Him: and to Him was given a royal power, and all the kings of the earth by their generation, and all glory obeying Him: and His power is eternal, which shall not be taken away, and His kingdom shall not be destroyed.” (Dan_7:13, Dan_7:14) Also in Isaiah: “Now will I arise, saith the Lord; now will I be glorified, now will I be exalted, now ye shall see, now ye shall understand, now ye shall be confounded. Vain will be the strength of your spirit: the fire shall consume you.” (Isa_33:10, Isa_33:11) Also in the 109th Psalm: “The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit Thou on my right hand, until I make Thine enemies the footstool of Thy feet. God will send the rod of Thy power out of Sion, and Thou shalt rule in the midst of Thine enemies.” (Psa_110:1, Psa_110:2) Also in the Apocalypse: “And I turned and looked to see the voice which spake with me. And I saw seven golden candlesticks, and in the midst of the candlesticks one like unto the Son of man, clothed with a long garment,329 and He was girt about the paps with a golden girdle. And His head and His hairs were white as wool or snow, and His eyes as a flame of fire, and His feet like to fine brass from a furnace of fire, and His voice like the sound of many waters. And He had in His right hand seven stars: and out of His mouth went a sharp two-edged sword; and His face shone as the sun in his might. And when I saw Him, I fell at His feet as dead. And He laid His right hand upon me, and said, Fear not; I am the first and the last, and He that liveth and was dead; and, lo, I am living for evermore330 and I have the keys of death and of hell.” (Rev_1:12-18) Likewise in the Gospel, the Lord after His resurrection says to His disciples: “All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. Go therefore and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you.” (Mat_28:18-20)
27. That it is impossible to attain to God the Father, except by His Son Jesus Christ.
In the Gospel: “I am the way, and the truth, and the life: no one cometh to the Father but by me.” (Joh_14:6) Also in the same place: “I am the door: by me if any man shall enter in, he shall be saved.” (Joh_10:9) Also in the same place: “Many prophets and righteous men have desired to see the things which ye see, and have not seen them; and to hear those things which ye hear, and have not heard them.” (Mat_13:17) Also in the same place: “He that believeth on the Son hath eternal life: he that is not obedient in word to the Son hath not life; but the wrath of God shall abide upon him.” (Joh_3:36) Also Paul to the Ephesians: “And when He had come, He preached peace to you, to those which are afar off, and peace to those which are near, because through Him we both have access in one Spirit unto the Father.” (Eph_2:17, Eph_2:18) Also to the Romans: “For all have sinned, and fail of the glory of God; but they are justified by His gift and grace, through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus.” (Rom_3:23, Rom_3:24) Also in the Epistle of Peter the apostle: “Christ hath died once for our sins, the just for the unjust, that He might present us to God.” (1Pe_3:18) Also in the same place: “For in this also was it preached to them that are dead, that they might be raised again.” (1Pe_4:6) Also in the Epistle of John: “Whosoever denieth the Son, the same also hath not the Father. He that confesseth the Son, hath both the Son and the Father.” (1Jo_2:23)
28. That Jesus Christ shall come as a Judge.
In Malachi: “Behold, the day of the Lord cometh, burning as an oven; and all the aliens and all the wicked shall be as stubble; and the day that cometh shall burn them up, saith the Lord.” (Mal_4:1) Also in the forty-ninth (or fiftieth) Psalm: “God the Lord of gods hath spoken, and called the earth. From the rising of the sun even to the going down thereof, out of Sion is the beauty of His glory. God shall come manifestly, our God, and shall not keep silence. A fire shall burn before Him, and round about Him shall be a great storm. He hath called the heaven above, and the earth, that He may separate His people. Gather together His saints unto Him, those who arrange His covenant with sacrifices. And the heavens shall announce His righteousness, for God is the judge.” (Psa_50:1-6) Also in Isaiah: “The Lord God of strength shall go forth, and shall break war in pieces: He shall stir up contest, and shall cry over His enemies with strength. I have been silent; shall I always be silent?” (Isa_42:13, Isa_42:14) Also in the sixty-seventh Psalm: “Let God arise, and let His enemies be scattered: and let those who hate Him flee from His face. As smoke vanisheth, let them vanish: as wax melteth from the face of fire, thus let the sinners perish from the face of God. And let the righteous be glad and rejoice in the sight of God: and let them be glad with joyfulness. Sing unto God, sing praises unto His name: make a way to Him who goeth up into the west. God is His name. They shall be put to confusion from the face of Him who is the Father of the orphans, and the Judge of the widows. God is in His holy place: God, who maketh men to dwell with one mind in an house, bringing forth them that are bound with might, and equally those who provoke unto anger, who dwell in the sepulchres: God, when Thou wentest forth in the sight of Thy people, in passing into the desert.” (Psa_68:1-7) Also in the 81st Psalm: “Arise, O God; judge the earth: for Thou wilt exterminate among all nations.” (Psa_82:8) Also in the Gospel according to Matthew: “What have we to do with Thee, Thou Son of David? why art Thou come hither to punish us before the time?” (Mat_8:29) Likewise according to John: “The Father judgeth nothing, but hath given all judgment to the Son, that all may honour the Son as they honour the Father. He that honoureth not the Son, honoureth not the Father who hath sent Him.” (Joh_5:22, Joh_5:23) So too in the second Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: “We must all appear before the judgment-seat of Christ, that every one may bear the things proper to his body, according to those things which he hath done, whether they be good or evil.” (2Co_5:10)
29. That He will reign as a King for ever.
In Zechariah: “Tell ye the daughter of Zion, Behold, thy King cometh unto thee: just, and having salvation; meek, sitting upon an as that hath not been tamed.” (Zec_9:9) Also in Isaiah: “Who will declare to you that eternal place? He that walketh in righteousness, and holdeth back his hands from gifts; stopping his ears, that he may not hear the judgment of blood; and closing his eyes, that he may not see unrighteousness: this man shall dwell in the lofty cavern of the strong rock; bread shall be given him, and his water shall be sure. Ye shall see the King with glory.” (Isa_33:14-17) Likewise in Malachi: “I am a great King, saith the Lord, and my name is illustrious among the nations.” (Mal_1:14) Also in the second Psalm: “But I am established as a King by Him upon His holy hill of Zion, announcing His empire.” (Psa_2:6) Also in the twenty-first Psalm: “All the ends of the world shall be reminded, and shall turn to the Lord: and all the countries of the nations shall worship in Thy sight. For the kingdom is the Lord’s: and He shall rule over all nations.” (Psa_22:27, Psa_22:28) Also in the twenty-third Psalm: “Lift up your gates, ye princes; and be ye lifted up, ye everlasting doors; and the King of glory shall come in. Who is this King of glory? The Lord strong and mighty, the Lord strong in battle. Lift up your gates, O ye princes; and be ye lifted up, ye everlasting doors; and the King of glory shall come in. Who is this King of glory? The Lord of hosts, He is the King of glory.” (Psa_24:7-10) Also in the forty-fourth Psalm: “My heart hath breathed forth a good discourse:331 I tell my works to the king: my tongue is the pen of a writer intelligently writing. Thou art lovely in beauty above the children of men: grace is shed forth on Thy lips, because God hath blessed Thee for ever. Be girt with Thy sword on Thy thigh, O most mighty. To Thy honour and to Thy beauty both attend, and direct Thyself, and reign, because of truth, and meekness, and righteousness.” (Psa_44:1-4) Also in the fifth Psalm: “My King, and my God, because unto Thee will I pray. O Lord, in the morning Thou shalt hear my voice; in the morning I will stand before Thee, and will contemplate Thee.” (Psa_5:2, Psa_5:3) Also in the ninety-sixth Psalm: “The Lord hath reigned; let the earth rejoice; let the many isles be glad.” (Psa_97:1) Moreover, in the forty-fourth Psalm: “The queen stood at thy right hand in a golden garment; she is clothed in many colours. Hear, O daughter, and see, and incline thine ear, and forget thy people and thy father’s house; for the King hath desired thy beauty, for He is thy Lord God.” (Psa_45:9-11) Also in the seventy-third Psalm: “But God is our King before the world; He hath wrought salvation in the midst of the earth.” (Psa_74:12) Also in the Gospel according to Matthew: “And when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judah in the days of Herod the king, behold, Magi from the east came to Jerusalem, saying, Where is He who is born King of the Jews? for we have seen His star in the east, and have come to worship Him.” (Mat_2:1, Mat_2:2) Also, according to John, Jesus said: “My kingdom is not of this world. If my kingdom were of this world, my servants would be in trouble, that I should not be delivered to the Jews; but now is my kingdom not from hence. Pilate said, Art thou a king, then? Jesus answered, Thou sayest that I am a king. For this cause I was born, and for this cause I am come into the world, that I might bear testimony to the truth. Every one that is of the truth heareth my voice.” (Joh_1:36, Joh_1:37)
30. That He Himself is both Judge and King.
In the seventy-first Psalm: “O God, give Thy judgment to the king, and Thy righteousness to the king’s son, to judge Thy people in righteousness.” (Psa_72:1, Psa_72:2) Also in the Apocalypse: “And I saw the heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and He who sate upon him was called Faithful and True; and He judgeth justice and righteousness, and maketh war. And His eyes were, as it were, a flame of fire, and upon His head were many crowns; and He bare a name written that was known to none other than Himself’: and He was clothed with a garment sprinkled with blood, and His name is called the Word of God. And the armies which are in heaven followed Him on white horses, clothed in linen white and Clean. And out of His mouth went forth a sword with two edges, that with it He should smite the nations, which He shall shepherd332 with a rod of iron; and He shall tread the winepress of the wrath of God Almighty. Also He has on His garment and on His thigh the name written, King of kings, and Lord of lords.” (Rev_19:11-16) Likewise in the Gospel: “When the Son of man shall come in His glory, and all the angels with Him, then He shall sit in the throne of His glory; and all nations shall be gathered together before Him, and He shall separate them one from another, even as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats; and He shall place the sheep at His right hand, but the goats at His left hand. Then shall the King say unto them who shall be at His right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, receive the kingdom which is prepared for you from the beginning of the world: for I was hungry, and ye gave me to eat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me to drink: I was a stranger, and ye received me: naked, and ye clothed me: sick, and ye visited me: I was in prison, and ye came unto me. Then shall the righteous answer, and say unto Him, Lord, when saw we Thee hungry, and fed Thee? thirsty, and gave Thee to drink? And when saw we Thee a stranger, and received Thee? naked, and clothed Thee? And when saw we Thee sick, and in prison, and came unto Thee? And the King, answering, shall say unto them, Verily I say unto you, In as far as ye have done it to the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me. Then shall He say unto them who shall be on His left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, which my Father hath prepared333 for the devil and his angels: for I have been hungry, and ye gave me not to eat: I have been thirsty, and ye gave me not to drink: I was a stranger, and ye received me not: naked, and ye clothed me not: sick, and in prison, and ye visited me not. Then shall they also answer and say, Lord, when saw we Thee hungry, or thirsty, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and have not ministered unto Thee? And He shall answer unto them, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye have not done it to one of the least of these, ye have not done it unto me. And these shall go away into everlasting burning, but the righteous into life eternal.” (Mat_25:31-46)
Cyprian to his son Quirinus,334 greeting. Of your faith and devotion which you manifest to the Lord God, beloved son, you asked me to gather out for your instruction from the Holy Scriptures some heads bearing upon the religious teaching of our school;334 seeking for a succinct course of sacred reading, so that your mind, surrendered to God, might not be wearied with long or numerous volumes of books, but, instructed with a summary of heavenly precepts, might have a wholesome and large compendium for nourishing its memory. And because I owe you a plentiful and loving obedience, I have done what you wished. I have laboured for once, that you might not always labour.335 Therefore, as much as my small ability could embrace, I have collected certain precepts of the Lord, and divine teachings, which may be easy and useful to the readers, in that a few things digested into a short space are both quickly read through, and are frequently repeated. I bid you, beloved son, ever heartily farewell.
1. On the benefit of good works and mercy.
2. In works and alms, even if by smallness of power less be done, that the will itself is enough.
3. That charity and brotherly love must be religiously and stedfastly practised.
4. That we must boast in nothing, since nothing is our own.
5. That humility and quietness is to be maintained in all things.
6. That all good and righteous men suffer more, but ought to endure because they are proved.
7. That we must not grieve the Holy Spirit whom we have received.
8. That anger must be overcome, lest it constrain us to sin.
9. That brethren ought to sustain one another.
10. That we must trust in God only, and in Him we must glory.
11. That he who has attained to faith, having put off the former man, ought to regard only celestial and spiritual things, and to give no heed to the world which he has already renounced.
12. That we must not swear.
13. That we are not to curse.
14. That we must never murmur, but bless God concerning all things that happen.
15. That men are tried by God for this purpose, that they may be proved.
16. Of the benefit of martyrdom.
17. That what we suffer in this world is of less account than is the reward which is promised.
18. That nothing must be preferred to the love of God and of Christ.
19. That we must not obey our own will, but that of God.
20. That the foundation and strength of hope and faith is fear.
21. That we must not rashly judge of another.
22. That when we have received a wrong, we must remit and forgive it.
23. That evil is not to be returned for evil.
24. That it is impossible to attain to the Father but by Christ.
25. That unless a man have been baptized and born again, he cannot attain to the kingdom of God.
26. That it is of small account to be baptized and to receive the Eucharist, unless one profits by it both in deeds and works.
27. That even a baptized person loses the grace which he has attained, unless he keep innocency.
28. That remission cannot in the Church be granted unto him who has sinned against God.
29. That it was before predicted concerning the hatred of the Name.
30. That what any one has vowed to God, he must quickly pay.
31. That he who does not believe is judged already.
32. Of the benefit of virginity and of continency.
33. That the Father judgeth nothing, but the Son; and the Father is not honoured by him by whom the Son is not honoured.
34. That the believer ought not to live like the Gentiles.
35. That God is patient for this end, that we may repent of our sin and be reformed.
36. That a woman ought not to be adorned in a worldly manner.
37. That the believer ought not to be punished for other offences but for the name he bears only.
38. That the servant of God ought to be innocent, lest he fall into secular punishment.
39. That the example of living is given to us in Christ.
40. That we must not labour boastfully or noisily.
41. That we must not speak foolishly and offensively.
42. That faith is of advantage altogether, and that we can do as much as we believe.
43. That he who truly believes can immediately obtain.
44. That the believers who differ among themselves ought not to refer to a Gentile judge.
45. That hope is of future things, and therefore that faith concerning those things which are promised ought to be patient.
46. That a woman ought to be silent in the church.
47. That it arises from our fault and our desert that we suffer, and do not perceive God’s help in everything.
48. That we must not take usury.
49. That even our enemies are to be loved.
50. That the sacrament of the faith must not be profaned.
51. That no one should be uplifted in his doing.
52. That the liberty of believing or of not believing is placed in free choice.
53. That the secrets of God cannot be seen through, and therefore that our faith ought to be simple.
54. That none is without filth and without sin.
55. That we must not please men, but God.
56. That nothing that is done is hidden from God.
57. That the believer is amended and reserved.
58. That no one should be made sad by death, since in living is labour and peril, in dying peace and the certainty of resurrection.
59. Of the idols which the Gentiles think gods.
60. That too great lust of food is not to be desired.
61. That the lust of possessing, and money, are not to be desired.
62. That marriage is not to be contracted with Gentiles.
63. That the sin of fornication is grievous.
64. What are those carnal things which beget death, and what are the spiritual things which lead to life.
65. That all sins are put away in baptism.
66. That the discipline of God is to be observed in Church precepts.
67. That it was foretold that men would despise sound discipline.
68. That we must depart from him who lives irregularly and contrary to discipline.
69. That the kingdom of God is not in the wisdom of the world, nor in eloquence, but in the faith of the cross and in virtue of conversation.
70. That we must obey parents.
71. And that fathers ought not to be bitter against their children.
72. That servants, when they believe, ought the more to be obedient to their fleshly masters.
73. Likewise that masters ought to be more gentle.
74. That every widow that is approved ought to be honoured.
75. That every person ought to have care rather of his own people, and especially of believers.
76. That one who is older must not rashly be accused.
77. That the sinner is to be publicly reproved.
78. That we must not speak with heretics.
79. That innocency asks with confidence, and obtains.
80. That the devil has no power against man unless God have allowed it.
81. That wages be quickly paid to the hireling.
82. That divination must not be used.
83. That a tuft of hair337 is not to be worn on the head.
84. That the beard must not be plucked.
85. That we must rise when a bishop or a presbyter comes.
86. That a schism must not be made, even although he who withdraws should remain in one faith and in the same tradition.
87. That believers ought to be simple with prudence.
88. That a brother must not be deceived.
89. That the end of the world comes suddenly.
90. That a wife must not depart from her husband; or if she departs, she must remain unmarried.
91. That every one is tempted so much as he is able to bear.
92. That not everything is to be done which is lawful.
93. That it was foretold that heresies would arise.
94. That the Eucharist is to be received with fear and honour.
95. That we are to live with the good, but to avoid the evil.
96. That we must labour with deeds, not with words.
97.That we must hasten to faith and to attainment.338
98. That the catechumen ought to sin no more.
99. That judgment will be in accordance with the terms, before the law, of equity; after Moses, of the law.
100. That the grace of God ought to be gratuitous.
101. That the Holy Spirit has often appeared in fire.
102. That all good men ought willingly to hear rebuke.
103. That we must abstain from much speaking.
104. That we must not lie.
105. That they are frequently to be corrected who do wrong in domestic service.
106. That when a wrong is received, patience is to be maintained, and that vengeance is to be left to God.
107. That we must not use detraction.
108. That we must not lay snares against our neighbour.
109. That the sick are to be visited. 110. That tale-bearers are accursed.
111. That the sacrifices of evil men are not acceptable.
112. That those are more severely judged who in this world have more power.
113. That widows and orphans ought to be protected.
114. That while one is in the flesh, he ought to make confession.
115. That flattery is pernicious.
116. That God is more loved by him Who has had many sins forgiven in baptism.
117. That there is a strong conflict to be waged against the devil, and that therefore we ought to stand bravely, that we may be able to conquer.
118. Of Antichrist, that he will come as a man.
119. That the yoke of the law was heavy, which is cast off by us; and that the Lord’s yoke is light, which is taken up by us.
120. That we are to be urgent in prayers.
305 The ordinary reading here is, “before He knows, to refuse the evil and to choose the good.” The reading in the text, however, is more authentic.
306 [Here the English (q. v.) gives the more literal reading, which the Septuagint treats as a proverb, unfolding its sense. “Water from the bucket” seems to have signified the same as our low proverb “a chip from the block,” hence = a Son from the Father. Num_24:7]
307 The Oxford translator follows the English version, and reads, “over Agag.”
309 “Infirmatus;” Oxford transl. “bruised.”
310 “Poderem,” “a long priestly robe reaching to the heels” (Migne’s Lexicon). The Oxford translation gives the meaning “an alb,” which also is given in Migne.
311 Cidarim, the head-dress for the Jewish high priest.
312 “In nomine;” Oxford translator, “at the name,” following the Eng. ver. But see the Greek, ἐν τῷ ὁνόματι.
313 The Oxford translation here inserts from the Apocrypha, without authority even for its text, “and objecteth to us the transgressions of the law.”
314 [Tertull., 3. p. 166. Note also “the mystery of the passion.”]
315 Migne’s reading differs considerably from this, and is as follows: “They shall take from the lambs and the goats of its blood, and shall place it upon the two posts,” etc.
316 Erasmus reads for “picridibus,” “lactucis agrestibus,” wild lettuces.
318 [See Tertull., “stumbling-stone,” vol. 3. p. 165.]
319 [The anointing of this stone gave it the name of Messiah in our author’s account; and this interpretation gives great dignity to Jacob’s dying reference to Him, Gen_49:24.] The Oxford edition omits “and descending.”
320 The Oxford edition reads, “conquered, that is, in that part of the head.”
323 [This is one of the passages corrupted by the Jews since the crucifixion. See Pearson, On the Creed, p. 534. All his notes on “crucified” are most precious.]
325 [i.e., baptized; but probably after immersion this symbolic ceremony was already in use.]
326 “And behold,” Oxford text.
327 [Lardner, Credib., vol. vii. pp. 107-124.]
328 [I admire Larnder’s caution; possibly he carries it too far.]
330 One codex reads here, “living in the assembly of the saints.”
331 [i.e., rather, “a good Word.” See p. 516, supra.]
332 The words “which he shall feed,” or “shepherd,” are wanting in the Apocalypse; and they are not found in many authorities.
333 [Said to be in the old Itala, as in some Greek mss. So Irenaeus, vol. 1. p. 524.]
334 [Whom he had probably baptized. Elucidation XI.]
335 [May the American editor of these volumes venture to trust that he has in some degree lightened the labours of those who come after him: “laboravi semel ne tu semper laborares.”]
336 [Six-score precepts to be compared with the heathen maxims and morals with which they so generally conflict. See Elucidation XII.]
337 “Cirrum in capte non habendum.” “Cirrus” means “a tuft of hair,” or a curl or lovelock. [But compare Clement, vol. 2. p. 286 (and note 207, on the chrism), for the more probable meaning.]