Vol. 9 Title and Contents

The Early Church Fathers:

Ante-Nicene Fathers

Volume 9

The Gospel of Peter, The Diatessaron of Tatian, The Apocalypse of Peter, The Vision of Paul, The Apocalypses of the Virgin and Sedrach, The Testament of Abraham, The Acts of Xanthippe and Polyxena, The Narrative of Zosimus, The Apology of Aristides, The Epistles of Clement (Complete Text), Origen’s Commentary on John, Books 1-10, and Commentary on Matthew, Books 1, 2, and 10-14






A. Recently Discovered Additions to Early Christian Literature

I. Works Connected with the Gospels

A. The Gospel of Peter

B. The Diatessaron of Tatian

II. Apocalypses and Romances

A. The Revelation of Peter

B. The Vision of Paul

C. The Apocalypse of the Virgin

D. The Apocalypse of Sedrach

E. The Testament of Abraham

F. The Acts of Xanthippe and Polyxena

G. The Narrative of Zosimus

III. The Epistles of Clement, Completed from a Manuscript Recently Discovered

IV. The Apology of Aristides the Philosopher

V. The Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs


B. Commentaries of Origen


Letter to Gregory

I. Origen’s Commentary on the Gospel of John

II. Origen’s Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew


The Ante-Nicene Fathers, which seemed many years ago to have completed its task, now presents itself once more and ventures to solicit the renewal of the favour with which it was formerly received by the theological world. The publishers and the editor, who now stands, he well knows how unworthily, in the place of Principal Donaldson and Professor Roberts, believe that the volume now added to the series will be found most interesting in itself and not unworthy to stand beside its predecessors.

This volume consists of two distinct parts. The first is a collection of recently discovered additions to early Christian literature. The period which has elapsed since the last volumes of this series were published has been singularly rich in such discoveries. A portion of a gospel has been recovered which was read in the latter part of the second century in certain Christian churches and purports to be the work of the Apostle Peter. A harmony of the four canonical gospels has also been brought to our knowledge, which was made in the same century, and which, in a considerable district of Eastern Christendom, supplanted these gospels themselves. Another work bearing the name of the Apostle Peter, his Apocalypse, which once appeared to have some claim to a place in the canon, has also been found. The Epistles of Clement, which formerly broke off abruptly, have recovered their concluding portions, and the earliest public appeal to the head of the state on behalf of Christianity is also now in our possession. The circumstances of these various discoveries, and also of others of a similar nature, are stated in the introductions prefixed by the writers in this volume to the various pieces, and it will be seen that scholars of many lands have taken part in them. English scholarship, it is well known, has distinguished itself highly in this field. Many of the pieces now given first saw the light in the Cambridge Texts and Studies, a publication of singular interest and enduring value, without which the present volume would not have come into existence. The editor of the Texts and Studies, Professor Armitage Robinson, has taken a very kind interest in the present publication and has himself contributed translations of two pieces.

The history of the discussions awakened by these discoveries cannot yet be written, but it is not too early to place the English reader in possession of the documents thus restored to the Christian community. The reader of former volumes of The Ante-Nicene Fathers has already become acquainted with a number of uncanonical gospels, of apocalypses, and of early Christian apologies. In each of these classes of Christian literature he is now presented with pieces not less interesting than any known before. A glance at the table of contents will show the principle according to which the various works have been arranged. It may be stated that the Diatessaron of Tatian is here for the first time translated into English from the Arabic.

The second part of this volume contains portions of two of the most important commentaries of Origen. When The Ante-Nicene Fathers came to a close it was felt that more should have been done for a father who occupies a position of which singular importance in the history both of Scripture exegesis and of Christian thought. It is believed that the present translations will be welcomed by many who feel that growing interest in Origen which now appears in many quarters, and that they will be acceptable to all who care to know the varieties of treatment the Scriptures have met with in the church.


Professor J. Armitage Robinson; Andrew Rutherford, b.d.

The Gospel of Peter

The Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs


Rev. Hope W. Hogg, b.d.

The Diatessaron of Tatian


Andrew Rutherford, b.d.

The Apocalypse of Peter

The Vision of Peter

The Apocalypse of the Virgin

The Apocalypse of Sedrach


W. A. Craigie, m.a., b.a. (Oxon.)

The Testament of Abraham

The Acts of Xanthippe and Polyxena

The Narrative of Zosimus


Rev. John Keith, d.d.

The Epistles of Clement


D. M. Kay, b.sc., b.d.(Assistant to the Professor of Semitic Languages in the University of Edinburgh)

The Apology of Aristides the Philosopher


Allan Menzies, d.d.

Epistle to Gregory

Origen’s Commentary on the Gospel of John


John Patrick, d.d.

Origen’s Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew

The Gospel of Peter – Introduction

The important fragment of which Mr. J. Armitage Robinson’s translation here follows was discovered by the French Archaeological Mission, Cairo, in a grave (supposed to be a monk’s) in an ancient cemetery at Akhmîm (Panopolis), in Upper Egypt, in 1886. It was published in 1892 under the care of M. Bouriant in vol. ix., fasc. i., of the Memoirs of the French Archaeological Mission at Cairo. The same parchment which contained this fragment also contained a fragment of the Revelation of Peter and a fragment of the Book of Enoch in Greek. The parchment codex is assigned to a date between the eighth and the twelfth century.

Before this discovery the following is all that was known of the Gospel of Peter:

1. Serapion, Bishop of Antioch 190-203, writing to the church at Rhossus, says (Eusebius, H. E., vi., 12, 2): “We, brethren, receive Peter and the other Apostles even as Christ; but the writings that go falsely by their names we, in our experience, reject, knowing that such things as these we never received. When I was with you I supposed you all to be attached to the right faith; and so without going through the gospel put forward under Peter’s name, I said, ‘If this is all that makes your petty quarrel,1 why then let it be read.’ But now that I have learned from information given me that their mind was lurking in some hole of heresy, I will make a point of coming to you again: so, brethren, expect me speedily. Knowing then, brethren, of what kind of heresy was Marcion – [Here follows a sentence where the text is faulty.]…From others who used this very gospel – I mean from the successors of those who started it, whom we call Docetae; for most of its ideas are of their school-from them, I say, I borrowed it, and was able to go through it, and to find that most of it belonged to the right teaching of the Saviour, but some things were additions.” From this we learn that a Gospel of Peter was in use in the church of Rhossus in the end of the second century, but that controversy had arisen as to its character, which, on a careful examination, Serapion condemned.

2. Origen (†  253 AD.), in commenting on Mat_10:17, says: “But, proceeding on the tradition that is recorded in the Gospel according to Peter or in the Book of James, they say that there are certain brothers of Jesus, the sons of Joseph by a former wife, who lived with him before Mary.”

3. Eusebius (H. E., iii., 3, 2) says: “As to that work, however, which is ascribed to him, called ‘The Acts,’ and ‘The Gospel according to Peter,’ and that called ‘The Preaching and the Revelations of Peter,’ we know nothing of their being handed down as Catholic writings; since neither among the ancient nor the ecclesiastical writers of our own day has there been one that has appealed to testimony taken from them.” And in H. E., iii., 25, 6 sq:, he includes the Gospel of Peter among the forged heretical gospels – “ those that are adduced by the heretics under the name of the apostles,… of which no one of those writers in the ecclesiastical succession has condescended to make any mention in his works; and, indeed, the character of the style itself is very different from that of the apostles; and the sentiments, and the purport of those things that are advanced in them, deviating as far as possible from sound orthodoxy, evidently proves they are the fictions of heretical men; whence they are not only to be ranked among the spurious writings, but are to be rejected as altogether absurd and impious.” It is, however, uncertain whether Eusebius himself was acquainted with the Gospel of Peter.

4. Theodoret (†  c. 455), in his Religious History, ii., 2, says that the Nazarenes used “the gospel called ‘according to Peter’” Later references in Western literature, e.g., Jerome, De vir. ill, i., and the Decretum Gelasianum, condemning the book, are based upon the judgement of Eusebius, and not upon direct knowledge (cf. Harnack, Geschichte der altchristl. Lit., I. Th., p. 11).

This was all that was known of the Gospel of Peter till the publication of the Akhmîm fragment. The latter extends to about 174 stichi, counting 32 words to the stichus. It begins in the middle of the history of the Passion, just after Pilate has washed his hands of all responsibility, and ends in the middle of a sentence, with the departure of the disciples into Galilee at the end of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, exactly a week after the crucifixion, the ostensible author, Peter, and Andrew, his brother, taking their nets and going to the sea; “and there was with us Levi the son of Alphaeus, whom the Lord…

The accompanying Synoptical Table shows where the Petrine narrative agrees with and where it varies from those supplied by the canonical gospels. Of that part of the Passion history which it narrates, it gives an account which follows the main lines of the canonical tradition, but with important variations in detail. Of the events between the burial and the resurrection of our Lord, its account is much more ample and detailed than anything in the canonical tradition.

Harnack (Texte und Untersuchungen, ix., 2, 2d ed., p.76) gives the following list of new traits contained in the Petrine account of the history of the Passion and burial:


1 Herod was the judge who condemned Jesus, and to him application had to be made for the body.

2 The Jews, Herod, and the judges would not wash their hands, and Pilate then raised the sitting.

3 Joseph was the friend of Pilate (sec. 2).

4 Joseph begged for the body before the crucifixion, and Pilate sent for permission from Herod.

5 The soldiers “pushed him as they ran,” and their speech (sec. 3).

6 The mockery of the soldiers.

7 Mocking speech.

8 “As though having no pain” (sec. 4).

9 “Having placed his garments before him.”

10 One of the malefactors blamed the multitude, and his speech.

11 The legs of either the malefactor or Jesus were not broken, in order that he might die in torment.

12 The gall and vinegar (sec. 5).

13 In the darkness many went about with lamps, and fell down.

14 The cry, “My power, my power.”

15 The fact that when he had so cried Christ was taken up.

16 Mention of the nails in the hands at the taking down from the cross (sec. 6).

17 The earthquake when the body touched the ground.

18 The joy of the Jews when the sun shone again.

19 Joseph “had seen all the good things” that the Lord had done.

20 Joseph washed the body.

21 The cries of woe of the Jews and their leaders over their sins, and their expectation of the judgement on Jerusalem (sec. 7).

22 The disciples remained in concealment, full of grief, and fasted and wept till the Sabbath.

23 They were searched for as malefactors and as anxious to burn the temple.

24 The name of the centurion of the watch-Petronius (sec 8).

25 The centurion, the soldiers, and the elders rolled up the stone.

26 The elders also watched at the grave.

27 Seven seals were placed on the stone.

28 A tent pitched for the watch.

29 The gathering of the multitude on the morning of the Sabbath to view the sealed grave (sec. 9).


The whole narrative of the resurrection is so different from that of the canonical gospels that it would be useless to go into details; but it is important to notice the prominence assigned to Mary Magdalene, and:


1 That the women fled from the grave and did not see the Lord (sec. 12).

2 That there is no account of any appearance of Christ for the first eight days after his death (sec. 13).

3 That the disciples, along with the rest of those who had taken part in the feast, returned home to Galilee on the seventh day of unleavened bread.

4 That they were then sad, and wept.

5 That the first appearance of Jesus must have taken place on the Lake of Gennesaret, either to Peter alone, or to Peter, Andrew, and Levi (Matthew), while fishing.


Moreover, according to section 13 (see sec. 5), the author puts the resurrection and ascension on the same day, or, rather, did not know of the latter as a separate event. He makes the angel say, “He is risen and gone away thither whence he was sent.”

Whether the author used any other sources than the canonical gospels is a matter still in doubt. He is certainly influenced by views which are foreign to these gospels, and which are known from other quarters in early Christian literature. As between the Synoptists and the Fourth Gospel, the narrator is generally more closely akin both in matter and in manner to the Synoptists, but he agrees with the author of the Fourth Gospel in regard to the chronology of the crucifixion and several of the events at the cross, and in his general attitude towards the Jews and Pilate. With regard to the last two points, the Petrine Gospel seems to present a later and more exaggerated form of the tendency perceptible in the Johannine, and fully worked out in the Acts of Pilate, to blame the Jews and exculpate Pilate.

Of the new features in this fragment some are at least liable to a Docetic interpretation, e.g., the silence on the cross “as though he had no pain” (sec. 4), the cry, “My power, my power “ (sec. 5), and “he was taken up” (sec. 5). This fact was recognised in subsequent times and condemned this gospel in the eye of the church. The date of the work is variously fixed by different scholars; Harnack assigns it to the first quarter of the second century, while Mr. Armitage Robinson and other scholars place it later.




1 Παρέχειν μικροψυχίαν, perhaps “causes you ill-feeling.” The translation of Serapion’s letter with this note is taken from Mr. Armitage Robinson’s edition of the gospel.

The Gospel of Peter (Cont.)

The Gospel According to Peter.*

1 But of the Jews none washed his hands, neither Herod nor any one of his judges. And when they had refused to wash them, Pilate rose up. And then Herod the king commandeth that the Lord be taken,1 saying to them, What things soever I commanded you to do unto him, do.

2 And there was standing there Joseph the friend of Pilate and of the Lord; and, knowing that they were about to crucify2 him, he came to Pilate and asked the body of the Lord for burial. And Pilate sent to Herod and asked his body. And Herod said, Brother Pilate, even if no one had asked for him, we purposed to bury him, especially as the sabbath draweth on:3 for it is written in the law, that the sun set not upon one that hath been put to death.

3 And he delivered him to the people on the day before the unleavened bread, their feast. And they took the Lord and pushed him as they ran, and said, Let us drag away the Son of God, having obtained power over him. And they clothed him with purple, and set him on the seat of judgement, saying, Judge righteously, O king of Israel. And one of them brought a crown of thorns and put it on the head of the Lord. And others stood and spat in his eyes, and others smote his cheeks: others pricked him with a reed; and some scourged him, saying, With this honour let us honour the Son of God.

4 And they brought two malefactors, and they crucified the Lord between them. But he held his peace, as though having no pain. And when they had raised the cross, they wrote the title: This is the king of Israel. And having set his garments before him they parted them among them, and cast lots for them. And one of those malefactors reproached them, saying, We for the evils that we have done have suffered thus, but this man, who hath become the Saviour of men, what wrong hath he done to you? And they, being angered at him, commanded that his legs should not be broken, that he might die in torment.

5 And it was noon, and darkness came over all Judaea: and they were troubled and distressed, lest the sun had set, whilst he was yet alive: [for] it is written for them, that the sun set not on him that hath been put to death. And one of them said, Give him to drink gall with vinegar. And they mixed and gave him to drink, and fulfilled all things, and accomplished their sins against their own head. And many went about with lamps, supposing that it was night, and fell down.4 And the Lord cried out, saying, My power, my power, thou hast forsaken me. And when he had said it he was taken up. And in that hour the vail of the temple of Jerusalem was rent in twain.5

6 And then they drew out the nails from the hands of the Lord, and laid him upon the earth, and the whole earth quaked, and great fear arose. Then the sun shone, and it was found the ninth hour: and the Jews rejoiced, and gave his body to Joseph that he might bury it, since he had seen what good things he had done. And he took the Lord, and washed him, and rolled him in a linen cloth, and brought him into his own tomb, which was called the Garden of Joseph.

7 Then the Jews and the elders and the priests, perceiving what evil they had done to themselves, began to lament and to say, Woe for our sins: the judgement hath drawn nigh, and the end of Jerusalem. And I with my companions was grieved; and being wounded in mind we hid ourselves: for we were being sought for by them as malefactors, and as wishing to set fire to the temple. And upon all these things we fasted and sat mourning and weeping night and day until the sabbath.

8 But the scribes and Pharisees and elders being gathered together one with another, when they heard that all the people murmured and beat their breasts saying, If by his death these most mighty signs have come to pass, see how righteous he is, – the eiders were afraid and came to Pilate, beseeching him and saying, Give us soldiers, that we may guard his sepulchre for three days, lest his disciples come and steal him away, and the people suppose that he is risen from the dead and do us evil. And Pilate gave them Petronius the centurion with soldiers to guard the tomb. And with them came elders and scribes to the sepulchre, and having rolled a great stone together with6 the centurion and the soldiers, they all together who were there set it at the door of the sepulchre; and they affixed seven seals, and they pitched a tent there and guarded it. And early in the morning as the sabbath was drawing on, there came a multitude from Jerusalem and the region round about, that they might see the sepulchre that was sealed.

9 And in the night in which the Lord’s day was drawing on, as the soldiers kept guard two by two in a watch, there was a great voice in the heaven; and they saw the heavens opened, and two men descend from thence with great light and approach the tomb. And that stone which was put at the door rolled of itself and made way in part; and the tomb was opened, and both the young men entered in.

10 When therefore those soldiers saw it, they awakened the centurion and the elders; for they too were hard by keeping guard. And, as they declared what things they had seen, again they see three men come forth from the tomb, and two of them supporting one, and a cross following them: and of the two the head reached unto the heaven, but the head of him that was led by them overpassed the heavens. And they heard a voice from the heavens, saying, Thou hast preached to them that sleep. And a response was heard from the cross, Yea.

11 They therefore considered one with another whether to go away and shew these things to Pilate. And while they yet thought thereon, the heavens again are seen to open, and a certain man to descend and enter into the sepulchre. When the centurion and they that were with him saw these things, they hastened in the night to Pilate, leaving the tomb which they were watching, and declared all things which they had seen, being greatly distressed and saying, Truly he was the Son of God. Pilate answered and said, I am pure from the blood of the Son of God: but it was ye who determined this. Then they all drew near and besought him and entreated him to command the centurion and the soldiers to say nothing of the things which they had seen: For it is better, say they, for us to be guilty of the greatest sin before God, and not to fall into the hands of the people of the Jews and to be stoned. Pilate therefore commanded the centurion and the soldiers to say nothing.

12 And at dawn upon the Lord’s day Mary Magdalen, a disciple of the Lord, fearing because of the Jews, since they were burning with wrath, had not done at the Lord’s sepulchre the things which women are wont to do for those that die and for those that are beloved by them – she took her friends with her and came to the sepulchre where he was laid. And they feared lest the Jews should see them, and they said, Although on that day on which he was crucified we could not weep and lament, yet now let us do these things at his sepulchre. But who shall roll away for us the stone that was laid at the door of the sepulchre, that we may enter in and sit by him and do the things that are due? For the stone was great, and we fear lest some one see us. And if we cannot, yet if we but set at the door the things which we bring for a memorial of him, we will weep and lament, until we come unto our home.

13 And they went and found the tomb opened, and coming near they looked in there; and they see there a certain young man sitting in the midst of the tomb, beautiful and clothed in a robe exceeding bright: who said to them, Wherefore are ye come? Whom seek ye? Him that was crucified?7 He is risen and gone. But if ye believe not, look in and see the place where he lay, that he is not [here]; for he is risen and gone thither, whence he was sent. Then the women feared and fled.

14 Now it was the last day of the unleavened bread, and many were going forth, returning to their homes, as the feast was ended. But we, the twelve disciples of the Lord, wept and were grieved: and each one, being grieved for that which was come to pass, departed to his home. But I Simon Peter and Andrew my brother took our nets and went to the sea; and there was with us Levi the son of Alphaeus, whom the Lord …





* Note. – This translation is based in that which I published in The Gospel and Apocalypse of Peter: Two Lectures, etc. (Camb., 1892). It is now carefully revised in accordance with the photographic facsimile. A corrected Greek text will be found in Dr. Swete’s edition (1893).

1 Παρ [αλημ] φθῆναι is perhaps supported by παραλαβόντες, Mat_24:27.

2 I know no other instance of σταυρίσκειν.

3 cf. Joh_19:31, where Syr. Pesch. reads: “They say, These bodies shall not remain on the cross, because the sabbath dawneth.”

4 The text here is corrupt: for ἐπέσαντο I have provisionally read ἔπεσάν τε.

5 For αὐτὸς ὥρας we must read αὐτῆς ὥρας cf. Clem., Hom., xx., 16; αὐτὴ is the equivalent in later Greek literature of ὲκείνη, as in the modern tongue (cf. Lc. X. 7, 21, and xii. 12; || ὲκείνη, Mt., Mc.).

6 I have ventured to substitute μετὰ, “together with” (cf. Mat_27:66), for κατὰ, “down upon.” Dr. Swete, however, keeps κατὰ, and interprets it as “against,” i.e., to guard the sepulchre against.

7 The form of the question in the Greek suggests a negative answer.

The Gospel of Peter (Cont.) Synoptical Table

Synoptical Table of the Four Canonical Gospels and the Gospel According to Peter.

Mat_27:1-66 Mar_15:1-47 Luk_23:1-56 Joh_19:1-42 The Gospel According to Peter    


Mat_27:25 2 cf. Luk_23:7 3 cf. Luk_22:66; Act_4:27 1 cf. John passim 1 But of the Jews1 none washed his hands, neither Herod2 nor any one of his judges.3 2 And when they had refused to wash them, Pilate rose up. And then Herod the king commandeth that the Lord be taken, saying to them, What things soever I commanded you to do unto him, do.   

cf. Mat_27:57 cf. Mar_15:43 cf. Mar_15:42 cf. Luk_23:50 4 cf. Luk_23:12 cf. Joh_19:38 cf. Joh_19:31 3 And there was come there Joseph the friend of Pilate and of the Lord; and, knowing that they were about to crucify him, he came to Pilate and asked the body of the Lord for burial. 4 And Pilate sent to Herod and asked his body. 5 And Herod said, Brother4 Pilate, even if no one had asked for him, we purposed to bury him, especially as the sabbath draweth on: for it is written in the law, that the sun set not upon one that hath been put to death. And he delivered him to the people on the day before the unleavened bread, their feast.   

Mat_27:26 Mar_15:15 Luk_23:24-25 Joh_19:16   

6 And they took the Lord and pushed him as they ran, and said, Let us drag away the Son of God, having obtained power over him.   

Mat_27:27-30 Mar_15:16-19 7 And they clothed him with purple, and set him on the seat of judgement, saying, Judge righteously, O King of Israel. 8 And one of them brought a crown of thorns and put it on the head of the Lord. 9 And others stood and spat in his eyes, and others smote his cheeks: others pricked him with a reed; and some scourged him, saying, With this honour let us honour the Son of God.   

Mat_27:31-32 Mar_15:20-21 Luk_23:26   


Mat_27:33-35 Mar_15:22-23 Luk_23:33 Joh_19:17-18 10 And they brought two malefactors, and the crucified the Lord between them.   

But he held his peace, as though having no pain.   

Mat_27:35-36 Mar_15:24-25 cf. Joh_19:23, Joh_19:24 11 And when they had raised the cross, they wrote upon it, This is the King of Israel. 12 And having set his garments before him, they parted them among them, and cast lots for them.   


Mat_27:37-43 Mar_15:26-32 Luk_23:38 Joh_19:19-22 cf. The Gospel According to Peter, v 11.   

cf. Mat_27:35 cf. Mar_15:24 Joh_19:23-24 cf. The Gospel According to Peter, v 12.   

Mat_27:44 Mar_15:32 Luk_23:39   

Luk_23:40-43 13 And one of the malefactors reproached them, saying, We for the evils that we have done have suffered thus, but this man, who hath become the Saviour of men, what wrong hath he done to you?   

14 And they, being angered at him, commanded that his legs should not be broken, that he might die in torment.   


Mat_27:45 Mar_15:33 Luk_23:44 15 And it was noon, and darkness came over all Judaea:   

and they were troubled and distressed, lest the sun had set, whilst he was yet alive: [for] it is written for them, and that the sun set not on him that had been put to death.   

Mat_27:46-47 Mar_15:34-35 Joh_19:28   

Mat_27:48-49 Mar_15:36 Joh_19:29 16 And one of them said, Give him to drink gall with vinegar. And they mixed and gave him to drink, 17 and fulfilled and accomplished their sins against their own head.   

Mat_27:50 Mar_15:37 Luk_23:46 Joh_19:30 18 And many went about with lamps, supposing it was night, and fell down. 19 And the Lord cried out, saying, My power, my power, thou hast forsaken me. And when he had said it he was take up.   

Mat_27:51 Mar_15:38 20 And in that hour the vail of the temple of Jerusalem was rent in twain.   

Mat_27:51-53 Joh_19:31-37   

Mat_27:54-56 Mar_15:39-41 Luk_23:47-49   

21 And then drew out nails from the hands of the Lord, and laid him upon the earth, and the whole earth quaked, and great fear arose. 22 Then the sun shone, and it was found the ninth hour: 23 and the Jews rejoiced, and   

Mat_27:57-58 Mar_15:42-43 Luk_23:50-52 Joh_19:38   


Mar_15:45 gave his body to Joseph that he might bury it,   

since he had seen what good things he had done.   


Mat_27:59-61 Mar_15:46-47 Luk_23:53-56 Joh_19:40-41 24 And he took the Lord, and wash him, and wrapped him in a linen cloth, and brought him into his own tomb, which was called the Garden of Joseph.   

25 Then the Jews and the elders and the priests, perceiving what evil they had done to themselves, began to lament and to say, Woe for our sins: the judgement hath drawn nigh, and the end of Jerusalem. 26 And I with my companions was grieved; and being wounded in mind we hid ourselves: for we were being sought for by them as malefactors, and as wishing to set fire to the temple.   

1cf. Mat_9:15 1 cf. Mar_2:20 2 cf. Mar_16:10 27 And upon all these things we fasted1 and sat mourning2 and weeping2 night and day until the sabbath.   

Mat_27:62 28 But the scribes and Pharisees and elders being gathered together one with another, when they heard that all the people murmured and beat their breasts, saying, If by his death these most mighty signs have come to pass, see how just he is, – 29 the elders were afraid and   

Mat_27:62-64 came to Pilate, beseeching him and saying, 30 Give us soldiers, that we may guard his sepulchre for three days, lest his disciples come and steal him away, and the people suppose that he is risen from the dead and do us evil.   

Mat_27:65 31 And Pilate gave them Petronius the centurion with soldiers to guard the tomb. And with them came the elders and scribes to the sepulchre,   

32 And having rolled a great stone together with the centurion and the soldiers, they all together who were there set it at the door of the sepulchre;   

Mat_27:66 33 And they affixed seven seals, and they pitched a tent there and guarded it.   

34 And early in the morning as the sabbath was drawing on, there came a multitude from Jerusalem and the region round about, that they might see the sepulchre that was sealed. 35 And in the night in which the Lord’s day was drawing on, as the soldiers kept guard two by two in a watch, there was a great voice in the heaven; 36 and they saw the heavens opened, and two men descend from thence with great light and approach the tomb. 37 And that stone which was put at the door rolled of itself and made way in part; and the tomb was opened, and both the young men entered in. 38 When therefore those soldiers saw it, they awakened the centurion and the elders, – for they too were hard by keeping guard; 39 and, as they declared what things they had seen, again they see three men coming forth from the tomb, and two of them supporting one, and a cross following them. 40 And of the two the head reached unto the heaven, but the head of him that was led by them overpassed the heavens. 41 And they heard a voice from the heavens, saying, Hast thou preached to them that sleep? 42 And a response was heard from the cross, Yea. 43 They therefore considered one with another whether to go away and shew these things to Pilate. 44 And while they yet thought thereon, the heavens again are seen to open, and a certain man to descend and enter into the sepulchre. 45 When the centurion and they that were with him saw these things, they hastened in the night to Pilate, leaving the tomb which they were   

cf. Mat_26:24 watching, and declared all things which they had seen, being greatly distressed and saying, Truly he was the Son of God. 46 Pilate answered and said, I am pure from the blood of the Son of God: but ye determined this. 47 Then they all drew near and besought him and entreated him to command the centurion and the soldiers to say nothing of the things which they had seen: 48 For it is better, say they, for us to incur the greatest sin before God, and not to fall into the hands of the people of the Jews and to be stoned. 49 Pilate therefore commanded the centurion and the soldiers to say nothing.   

Mat_28:1 Mar_16:1-2 Luk_24:1 Joh_20:1 50 And at dawn upon the Lord’s day, Mary Magdalen, a disciple of the Lord, fearing because of the Jews, since they were burning with wrath, had not done at the Lord’s sepulchre the things which the women are wont to do for those that die and for those that are beloved by them – 51 she took her friends with her and came to the sepulchre where he was laid.   

52 And they feared lest the Jews should see them, and they said, Although on the day on which he was crucified we could not weep and lament, yet now let us do these things at his sepulchre.   

Mar_16:3 53 But who shall roll away for us the stone that was laid at the door of the sepulchre, that we may enter in and sit by him and do the things that are due? 54 For the stone was great, and we fear lest some one see us. And if we cannot, yet if we but set at the door the things which we bring for a memorial of him, we will weep and lament, until we come unto our home.   


Mat_28:2 Mar_16:4 Luk_24:2 Joh_20:1 55 And they went away and found the tomb opened,   

Mar_16:5 Luk_24:3-4 and coming near they looked in there;   

Mat_28:3 Mar_16:5 Luk_24:4-5 and they see a certain young man sitting in the midst of the tomb, beautiful and clothed in a robe exceeding bright;   


Mat_28:5-7 Mar_16:6-7 Luk_24:5-8 who said to them, 56 Wherefore are ye come? Whom seek ye? Him that was crucified? He is risen and gone. But if ye believe not, look in and see the place where he lay, that he is not [here]; for he is risen and gone away thither, whence he was sent.   

Mat_28:8 Mar_16:8 Luk_24:9 57 Then the women feared and fled.   

Levi, etc; cf. Mar_2:14 58 Now it was the last day of the unleavened bread, and many were going forth, returning to their homes, as the feast was ended. 59 But we, the twelve disciples of the Lord, mourned and were grieved: and each one, being grieved for that which was come to pass, departed to his home. 60 But I, Simon Peter and Andrew my brother, took our nets and went to the sea; and there was with us Levi the son of Alphaeus, whom the Lord…  

The Diatessaron of Tatiann – Introduction.

The aim of the following introductory paragraphs is neither to furnish a detailed restatement of facts already known, nor to offer an independent contribution to the discussion of the problems that arise, although in other circumstances such an attempt might be made with advantage. All that is needed and practicable here is to describe briefly, if possible, the nature of the connection between the English treatise forming the next part of this volume and the ancient work known as the Diatessaron of Tatian; and then to indicate in a few words some of the more important or interesting features of the work itself, and some of the historical and other problems that are in one way or another connected with it.


1 The Text Translated. — What is offered to the reader is a translation into English of an Arabic text, published at Rome in 1888, in a volume entitled in Arabic Diatessaron, which Titianus Compiled from the Four Gospels, with the alternative Latin title, Tatiani Evangeliorum Harmonioe, Arabice. The Roman volume consists of two parts — the text, covering a little over 209 very clearly printed Arabic pages, and a Latin half, comprising a scholarly introduction (pp. v.-xv.), a Latin translation (pp. 1-99), and a table showing the order in which the passages taken from the gospels occur in the text. The editor is P. Agostino Ciasca, a well-known Orientalist, “scriptor” at the Vatican Library.


2 Former Translations. — In his Introduction (p. xiv. f.) Ciasca explains that in his translation he aimed at preserving quantum, salva fidelitate, integrum fuit, indolem stylumque Clementinoe Vulgatoe. This Latin version was in its turn translated into English by the Rev. J. Hamlyn Hill, B.D., and published in 1894 in a volume entitled The Earliest Life of Christ, with an interesting introduction and a number of valuable appendices. The ms. of Mr. Hill’s translation of the Latin of Ciasca was compared with the Arabic original by Mr. G. Buchanan Gray, M.A., lecturer in Hebrew and the Old Testament in Mansfield College, Oxford.


3 The Present Translation. — The translation offered here is quite independent of either of these two. Ciasca’s Latin was seldom consulted, except when it was thought the Arabic might perhaps be obscured by a misprint. After the translation was completed, Hill’s English was compared with it to transfer Mr. Hill’s valuable system of references to the margin of this work, and to lessen the risk of oversights passing the last revision unnoticed. In two or three cases this process led to the adoption of a different construction, and in a few of the more awkward passages a word was borrowed as being less harsh than that which had originally been written. Speaking generally, the present version appears to differ from Mr. Hill’s in adhering more closely to the original.1


4 The Arabic Text. — Only two Arabic mss. are known to exist. Ciasca tells us (p. xiv.) that he took as the basis of his text that ms. which is more careful in its orthography, the Cod. Vat. Arab. No. 14. He, however, printed at the foot of the page the variants of the other ms., and supplied from it two lacunae in the Cod. Vat.2substituted its readings for those of the Cod. Vat. where he thought them preferable, and followed its testimony in omitting two important passages.3 Here and there Ciasca has emended the text, but he does not profess to have produced a critical edition.4


5 The Arabic mss. — Unfortunately, the present writer has not had an opportunity of examining these two mss.; but they have been described at some length by Ciasca; Codex XIV., in Pitra’s Analecta Sacra, iv., 465 if, and the other codex in the volume with which we are dealing, p. vi. ff. I. The former, which we shall call the Vatican ms. (in Ciasca’s foot-notes it is called A), was brought to the Vatican from the East by Joseph S. Assemani5 about A.D. 1719. It was described by Stephen E. Assemani,6 Rosenmüller, and Akerblad,7 and then at length by Ciasca, to whose account the reader must be referred for the details. It consists of 123 folios, of which the first seven are somewhat spoiled, and of which two are missing,8 and is supposed by Ciasca, from the character of the writing, and from the presence of certain Coptic letters9 by the first hand, to have been written in Egypt. S. Assemani assigned it to the twelfth century, and Ciasca accepts his verdict, while Akerblad says the thirteenth or fourteenth century. The text of the ms. is pretty fully vocalised, but there are few diacritical points. There are marginal notes, some of them by a later hand,10 which Ciasca classifies as (1) emendations, (2) restorations, (3) explanations. II. The second ms., which we shall call the Borgian (in Ciasca’s foot-notes it is called B), was brought to the Borgian Museum from Egypt in August, 1886. It has at the end the following inscription in Arabic: “A present from Halim Dos Ghali, the Copt, the Catholic, to the Apostolic See, in the year of Christ 1886.”11 Antonius Morcos, Visitor Apostolic of the Catholic Copts, when, in the beginning of 1886, he was shown and informed about the Vatican ms., told of this other one and was the means of its being sent to Rome. The Borgian ms., which Ciasca refers to the fourteenth century, consists of 355 folios. Folios 1 — 8512 contain an anonymous preface on the gospels, briefly described by Ciasca, who, however, does not say whether it appears to have been originally written in Arabic or to have been translated into that language. With folios 96b, 97a, which are reproduced in phototype in Ciasca’s edition, begins the Introductory Note given in full at the beginning of the present translation. The text of the Diatessaron ends on folio 353a, but is followed by certain appendices, for which see Section 55, 177. This ms. is complete, and has, as we shall see,13 in some respects a better text, though it is worse in its orthography than the Vatican ms.


6 Condition of the Arabic Text. — Ciasca’s text does not profess to be critically determined, for which purpose a more careful study of each of the mss. and an estimate of their respective texts would be indispensable. Although the Borgian ms. is supposed by Ciasca to be a century or two later than the Vatican ms. it is clearly not a copy of the latter, for not only does it sometimes offer more original readings, but, as we shall see, its text in some points coincides more exactly in scope with the original work. The list of various readings supplied by Ciasca,14 which is equal to about a fifth or a quarter of the text itself, ought to yield, on being analysed, some canons of criticism. The foot-notes of the present edition are enough to show that a number of the peculiar features of Ciasca’s text do not belong to the original Arabic ms.; and further study would dispose of still more. On the other hand, there are unfortunately some indications15 that the common ancestor of both mss., though perhaps less than two centuries removed from the original, was not the original itself, and therefore emendation may be necessary even where both mss. agree. From first to last it has to be borne in mind that a great deal of work was done at Arabic versions of the gospels,16 and the text of the copy from which our two mss. are descended may already have suffered from contact with other versions; while the special activity of the thirteenth century may have left its mark in some places on the text of the Borgian ms., supposing it to be chronologically the later.


7 Origin of the Arabic Text. — If some of the uncouthness of the Arabic text is due to corruption in the course of transmission, much is also due to its being not an original work, but a translation. That it is, in the main, a translation from Syriac is too obvious to need proof.17 The Introductory Notice and Subscription to the Borgian ms., moreover, expressly state that the work was translated by one Abu’l Faraj ‘Abdulla ibn-at-Tayyib,18 an “excellent and learned priest,” and the inferiority of parts of the translation,19 and entire absence of any confirmatory evidence,20 hardly suffice to refute this assertion. Still, the Borgian ms. is a late witness, and although it most probably preserves a genuine tradition as to the author of our work, its statement need not therefore necessarily be correct in every point.


8 The Arabic Editor and his Method. — Ibn-at-Tayyib (d. 1043) is a well-known man, a Nestorian monk and scholar, secretary to Elias I., Patriarch of Nisibis (for references to sources see, e.g., Ciasca’s Introduction, p. xi. f. and Steinschneider’s long note in his Polemische und apologetische Lit. in Arabische Sprache, pp. 52-55). As we are here concerned with him simply as a link in the chain connecting our present work with its original source, the only point of interest for us is the method he followed in producing it. Did he prepare an independent translation or did he make use of existing Arabic versions, his own or others? Until this question, which space forbids us to discuss here, has been more thoroughly investigated,21 it must suffice to say that in view of the features in the present text that have not yet been shown to exist in any other Arabic version, it is still at least a tenable hypothesis that Ibn-at-Tayyib’s ms. constituted to a considerable extent a real translation rather than a sort of Arabic parallel to the Codex Fuldensis (see Introduction 12).


9 The Syriac Text Translated — The eleventh-century ms. of Ibn-at-Tayyib, could we reach it, would bring us face to face with the more interesting question of the nature of his Syriac original. The Subscription to the Borgian ms. states, probably copying the statement from its exemplar, that this was a Syriac ms. in the handwriting of ‘Isa ibn-‘Ali al Motatabbib, pupil of Honain ibn Ishak. This Honain was a famous Arabic physician and medical writer of Bagdad (d. 873), whose school produced quite a number of translations and translators, among whom Ibn-‘Ali, supposed to be identical with the Syriac lexicographer of the same name, is known to have had a high place. The Syriac ms., therefore, that Ibn-at-Tayyib translated takes us back to about the year 900. But the Subscription to each of our mss.22 states that the work ended is the gospel called Diatessaron, compiled from the four gospels by Titianus; while the Introductory Note to the Borgian ms. adds that this Titianus was a Greek. The next step, therefore, is to inquire whether any traces exist of such a Syriac work, or any statements by which we can check the account just given of it.


10 Other Traces of a Syriac Text. — No copy of a Syriac Diatessaron has yet been shown to have survived.23 A number of quotations24 from such a work have, however, been found in a Syriac commentary on the New Testament by Isho’dad of Merv (circ. 852), a contemporary of Honain, Ibn-‘Ali’s teacher.25 The value of these extracts is apparent, for they take us back one generation earlier than Ibn-at-Tayyib’s Syriac exemplar. More important still, they do not entirely agree with the text of our Arabic version. To solve the problem thus raised, we must examine some of the statements about the Diatessaron to be found in ecclesiastical writers.


11 Statements about the Diatessaron. — One of the most widely known is that of Isho’dad himself, who, in his Preface to the Gospel of Mark, says: “Tatian, disciple of Justin, the philosopher and martyr, selected from the four gospels, and combined and composed a gospel, and called it Diatessaron, i.e., the Combined, … and upon this gospel Mar Ephraem commented.”26 Dionysius Bar Salibi (twelfth century) repeats each of these phrases, adding, “Its commencement was, ‘In the beginning was the Word.’”27 These statements identify the author of the Diatessaron with a man otherwise known, and tell us that the great Syrian father Ephraem (d. 373) wrote a commentary on it. Unfortunately, no Syriac ms. of Ephraem’s work is known to have survived;28 but quotations from it, or allusions to it, are being found in other Syriac writers. One further reference will suffice for the present. Theodoret, Bishop of Cyrrhus, four hundred years before Isho’dad, wrote thus in his book on Heresies (written in 453): “Tatian the Syrian. … This [writer] also composed the gospel which is called Diatessaron, cutting out the genealogies and whatever other passages show that the Lord was born of the seed of David according to the flesh.”29 Before examining the testimonials we have now adduced, we must notice certain more remote sources of information.


12 Non-Syriac Texts of the Diatessaron. — Although Ephraem’s Syriac commentary on the Diatessaron is for the present lost, there is an Armenian version of it30 extant in two mss. dating from about the time of Bar Salibi and our Vat. ms.31 A Latin translation of this work, published in 1876 by Moesinger,32 formed the main basis of Zahn’s attempt33 to reconstruct the Diatessaron. Appendix X in Hill’s Diatessaron (pp. 334-377) contains an English translation of the texts commented on by Ephraem, made from Moesinger’s Latin, but collated with the Armenian by Professor J. Armitage Robinson, of Cambridge. A comparison of this document with our Arabic text shows a remarkable agreement in the order and contents, but just as remarkable a lack of agreement in the kind of text presented. The same phenomenon is met with when we compare our Arabic text with a document that carries us back three hundred years before the time of Isho’dad, and therefore more than six hundred years before the Armenian mss. — the Codex Fuldensis of the Vulgate.34 This ms. contains an arrangement of the gospel matter that its discoverer and publisher, Bishop Victor of Capua (d. 554), rightly concluded must represent the Diatessaron of Tatian, but for the text of which was apparently substituted that of the Vulgate.35 We are now ready to weigh the testimony we have gathered.36


13 Accretions to the Diatessaron. — The statements we are to consider are: (1) Bar Salibi’s, that Tatian’s Diatessaron began with “In the beginning was the Word”;37 (2) Theodoret’s, that Tatian cut out the genealogies; and (3) the same writer’s, that Tatian also cut out “whatever other passages show that the Lord was born of the seed of David according to the flesh.” Of these statements 1 conflicts with the Arabic text, which begins with Mark, and the Codex Fuldensis, which begins with Luke, but agrees with the Ephraem source; the same is true of 2; while 3 conflicts with all three texts. Our limits do not admit of our discussing these points in detail. It must suffice to say (1) that, although a more careful examination at first-hand of the introductory notices in the two Arabic mss. seems needed before one can venture to propound a complete theory, a comparison of the two texts, and a consideration of the descriptions given by Ciasca and Lagarde,38 make it almost certain that the genuine Arabic text of Ibn-at-Tayyib began with Joh_1:1. Similarly the first four verses of Luke (on which see also below, Section 1, 61) were probably not in the original text of the ms. that Victor found, for they are not mentioned in the (old) table of contents. We seem thus to detect a process of gradual accretion of material drawn from the ordinary gospel text. (2) The genealogies illustrate the same process. In the Vatican ms. they form part of the text.39 But in the Borgian ms., although they precede the Subscription, and therefore may have been already in the ninth-century Syriac ms. used by Ibn-at-Tayyib, they are still placed by themselves, after a blank space, at the end of the volume, with a title of their own.40 Here, therefore, we actually see stages of the process of accretion. (3) It is therefore possible that the same account must also be given of 3, although in this case we have no direct proof.


14 Passages Lost from the Diatessaron. — If the Diatessaron has thus been growing so as to represent the ordinary text of the canonical gospels more completely, we have also evidence that suggests that it has been at some time or times purged of certain features that are lacking in these canonical gospels. For one case of this kind see Section 4, 3613.


15 Preservation of the Text of the Diatessaron. — We have observed already that the Latin, Armenian, and Arabic Diatessarons correspond pretty closely in subject-matter and arrangement, but differ markedly in text. The Codex Fuldensis is really a ms. of the Vulgate, although the text that Victor found was probably somewhat different. The Armenian text differs materially from the ordinary Syriac version of the New Testament (the Peshitta), showing a marked connection with another type of Syriac text represented now by the Curetonian and Sinaitic (Lewis) mss. The Arabic text, on the other hand, almost systematically represents the Peshitta. The explanation of the condition of text in the Codex Fuldensis is obvious. On the other hand, the relationship of the Armenian and Arabic texts to the original Diatessaron must be determined by weighing very multifarious evidence that cannot be even cited here (see 6 ff.). The two texts depend, as we have seen, on late mss.; but all the earlier references and quotations go to show that the Armenian text41 stands much more closely related to the original than does the Arabic.


16 Checkered History of the Diatessaron. — What use the Arabic edition of Ibn-at-Tayyib was put to when made we do not know. ‘Abd Isho’ (d. 1318) speaks in the highest terms of Tatian’s work, saying, “… With all diligence he attended to the utmost degree to the right order of those things which were said and done by the Saviour; of his own he did not add a single saying.”42 But the leader of the Syrian church had not always thought so. Theodoret (loc. cit.) some nine hundred years earlier had written thus: “… Even those that follow the apostolic doctrines, not perceiving the mischief of the composition,” used “the book too simply as an abridgment.” A few years earlier Rabbula, Bishop of Edessa (d. 435), had said:43 “Let the presbyters and deacons give heed that in all the churches there be provided and read a copy of the Distinct Gospel,” i.e., not the harmonized or mixed gospel. But obviously these men were trying to suppress traditional practice due to very different views. Theodoret (loc. cit.) found more than two hundred copies of the work “held in respect in the churches”; and the Doctrine of Addai (Edessa, third to fourth century) seems simply to identify the Diatessaron and the New Testament.44 Outside of the Syriac-speaking churches we find no signs of any such use of the Diatessaron. It would seem, therefore, that at a quite early stage the Diatessaron was very widely if not universally read in the Syriac churches, and commented on by scholars as the gospel; that in time it fell under the condemnation of some at least of the church leaders, who made violent efforts to suppress it; that it could not be suppressed; that a commentary on it was (perhaps in the fifth century45) translated into Armenian; that it was still discussed by commentators, and new Syriac mss. of it made in the ninth century, and thought worth the labor of reproduction in Arabic in the beginning of the eleventh century; that mss. of the Armenian volume continued to be made down to the very end of the twelfth century, and of the Arabic edition down to the fourteenth century; but that this long life was secured at the expense of a more or less rapid assimilation of the text to that of the great Syriac Bible which from the fourth century onwards became more and more exclusively used — the Peshitta.


17 The Author of the Diatessaron. — The Diatessaron is such an impersonal work that we do not need to know very much about its compiler.46 It will suffice here to say that he tells us himself that he was born “in the land of the Assyrians,” and brought up a heathen. After travelling in search of knowledge, he settled at Rome, where he became a pupil of Justin Martyr, professed Christianity, and wrote in Greek his Address to the Greeks,47 translated in vol. 2. of the Ante-Nicene Christian Library. He was too independent in his attitude to maintain a permanent popularity, and after Justin’s death left Rome and returned to Mesopotamia. It was probably here that he issued in Syriac his most important work, the Diatessaron, which won such a warm place in the heart of the Syrian church. Among the Greek scholars, however, he became more and more regarded as a heretic, Encratite (ascetic), and Gnostic.


18 The Diatessaron as a Harmony. — Not very much need be said on this subject, as every reader can collect the facts for himself. In its present form the Harmony draws from all the four canonical gospels, and from very little else. Opinions differ as to whether it originally indicated the gospel from which any given piece was drawn, and some uncertainty must remain in special cases as to what gospel actually has been drawn upon. Professor G. F. Moore, in a very interesting article on the Diatessaron,48 having counted the references in the Arabic mss., states that the Arabic text contains 50 per cent of Mark, 66 per cent of Luke, 76.5 per cent of Matthew, and 96 per cent of John. The summation of his figures gives the following result: out of a total of 3780 verses in the four gospels, the Diatessaron quotes 2769 and omits 1011. As to the order in which the whole is arranged, Moore thinks that Matthew has chiefly been followed; while Zahn regards the Fourth Gospel as normative. For a specimen of the way in which words and phrases from the different gospels are woven together, we may refer to 52, 35 ff., and the notes thereon. In the Arabic mss., and probably in the Syriac exemplar, the work is divided into fifty-four almost equal chapters, followed by one short one — a feature that agrees well with what we have learned of the work as being of old the lectionary of the Syrian church. 


19 Problems Connected with the Diatessaron. — The Diatessaron opens up a very wide field of study A few points may be here enumerated (see also above, 821). In what language was it written? On the view favoured by an increasing majority of scholars, that it was written in Syriac, was it a translation or simply a compilation? What precisely is its relation to the Syriac versions and the “Western” text generally? Then there is its bearing on the date and formation of the canonical gospels; the phenomenon of its so long supplying the place of those gospels; the analogy it presents to the Pentateuch, according to the critical view of the origin of the latter. These and other issues make the Diatessaron an important and interesting study.


20 The Present Translation. — The work of translation has been found much more tedious than was anticipated, notwithstanding the fact that considerably more than half of it is the work of my wife, which I have simply revised with special attention to the many obscurities dealt with in the foot-notes. We have, however, worked so much together that it is very doubtful whether any one could assign the various parts to their respective sources. My wife also verified the Arabic references to the gospels printed on the margin to the right of the text,49 and prepared the Index to these references — an extremely laborious and perplexing piece of work. This Index is inserted merely for the practical purpose of enabling the reader to find any given gospel piece in the Diatessaron. When a verse is not found in the Index, an equivalent passage from some of the other gospels should be looked for. On the margin to the left of the text are indicated the pages of the Arabic text and the sections and verses in Hill’s version.50


The aim has been to make a literal translation. As two freer translations already exist, it seemed best to incline to the side of being overliteral. If, however, features due simply to Arabic idiom have been preserved, this is an oversight. Uniformity could only have been secured by devoting a much longer time to the work than the editor was able to allow. The difficulties are due to the corrupt state of the Arabic text,51 and to the awkward reproduction52 or actual misunderstanding53 of the Syriac original by the author or authors of the Arabic translation. It has been impossible to maintain consistency in dealing with these phenomena. If any rendering seem strange, it will be well to consult the Syriac versions before deciding that it is wrong. A good deal of attention, too, has to be paid to the usage of the Arabic text, which, though it has many points of contact with other Arabic versions of the gospels, e.g., the ms. described by Gildemeister (De evangg. in arab. e simp. Syr., 1865), is as yet for us (see Introduction 8) a distinct version, possessed of an individuality of its own, one pronounced feature being its very close adherence to its Syriac original. Another revision of the present translation, in the light of a fuller study of these features, would doubtless lead to changes both in the text and in the foot-notes. The latter aim at preventing misunderstanding and giving some examples of the peculiarities of the text, and of the differences between the mss. To have dealt systematically with the text and various readings would have required much more time and space than was available. The consequence of this incompleteness has been some uncertainty at times what text to translate. As already stated (paragraphs 4 and 6), Ciasca’s printed text neither represents any one ms. nor professes to be based in its eclecticism on any systematic critical principles. On the whole Ciasca has here been followed somewhat mechanically in deciding what to exhibit in the text and what to relegate to the foot-notes. As a rule conjectural emendations have not been admitted into the text except where the ms. readings would hardly bear translation. Italics in the text denote words supplied for the sake of English idiom; in the foot-notes, quotations from the mss. It is to be noted that many linguistic usages said, for shortness, in the foot-notes to be characteristic of the present work, i.e., as compared with ordinary Arabic, are common in Arabic versions. “Syriac versions” means the three (Pesh., Cur., Sin.), or as many of them as contain the passage in question; if the Peshitta alone is quoted, it may be assumed that Cur. and Sin. are missing or diverge.


In conclusion we may say that an effort has been made to preserve even the order of words; but it must be emphasized that it is very doubtful whether it is wise for any one to use the Arabic Diatessaron for critical purposes who is not acquainted with Arabic and Syriac. The tenses, e.g., are much vaguer in Arabic than in Greek and English, and are, moreover, in this work often accommodated to Syriac idiom. The Greek and the Revised Version have been used to determine in almost every case how the vague Arabic tenses and conjunctions should be rendered. It is therefore only where it differs from these that our translation can be quoted without investigation as giving positive evidence.


This is not a final translation. Few books have had a more remarkable literary history that the Diatessaron, and that history is by no means done. Much careful argument will be yet devoted to it, and perhaps discoveries as important as any hitherto made yet to shed light on the problems that encircle it. If our work can help any one to take a step in advance, we shall not regret the toil.


Oxford, 21st December, 1895.





1 For further explanation of the method followed see 20.

2 See notes to Section 7, 47, and Section 52, 36, of the present translation

3 See Introduction 12, (2).

4 See also below, 6, and 20.

5 Bibl. Or., i., 619.

6 Mai, Vet. script. nova. collect., iv. 14.

7 cf. Zahn, Forschungen, i., 294 ff.

8 See Section 7, 47, and Section 52, 36.

9 See Section 28, 43.

10 See below, foot-notes, passim.

11 The first leaf bears a more pretentious Latin inscription, quoted by Ciasca, p; vi.

12 Can this be a misprint for 95?

13 See Introduction 13.

14 He does not state, in so many words, that the list is absolutely exhaustive.

15 See e.g. below Section 13, 42 and Section 14, 43.

16 See the valuable article of Guidi “Le traduzioni degli Evangelii in arabo e in etiopico” (Atti della R. Accademia dei Lincei; Classe di Scienze Morali, Storiche e filologiche. Serie Quarta, 1888, Parte Prima — Memorie, pp. 5-38.) Some of his results are briefly stated in Scrivener, A Plain Introduction to the Crit. of the N. T. 4th ed. ii. 162.

17 cf. the foot-notes passim, e.g., Section 13, 14 Section 14, 24.

18 See note to Subscription.

19 See a glaring case in Section 52, 11.

20 The references to the readings of the Diatessaron in Ibn-at-Tayyib’s own commentary on the gospels (see next note) are remarkably impersonal for one who had made or was to make a translation of it.

21 A specially important part of the general question is this What are the mutual relations of the following: (1) a supposed version of at least Matthew and John made from the Syriac by Ibn-at-Tayyib, mentioned by Ibn-al-‘Assâl in the Preface to his scholarly recension of the gospels (ms. numbered Or. 3382 in Brit. Mus., folio 384b) and used by him in determining his text; (2) the gospel text interwoven with the commentary of Ibn-at-Tayyib on the gospels, a commentary which De Slane says the author wrote in Syriac and then translated into Arabic; (3) our present work. Of mss. testifying to No; 1 we have some dating from the time of Ibn-al-‘Assâl himself; of No. 1 we have, in addition to others, an eleventh-century ms. in Paris, described by De Slane (catalogue No. 85) as being “un volume dépareillé du ms. original de l’ouvrage”; of No. 3 we have of course the Vatican and Borgian mss; What is the mutual relation of these texts; were any two of them identical? The Brit. Mus. ms. of the second has many points of contact with the third, but is dated 1805 a.d. Does the older Paris ms. stand more or less closely related? Did Ibn-at-Tayyib himself really translate any or all of these texts, or did he simply select or edit them? Space does not permit us to point out, far less to discuss, the various possibilities.

22 The text is given below in full at its proper place.

23 Prof. Gottheil, indeed, announced in 1892 in the Journal of Biblical of Literature (vol. xi., pt. i., p. 71) that he had been privately informed of the existence of a complete copy of the Syriac Diatessaron. Unfortunately, however, as he has kindly informed me, he has reluctantly come to the conclusion that the ms. in question, which is not yet accessible, is “nothing more than the commentary of Isho`dad” mentioned in the text. A similar rumor lately circulated probably originated simply in the pamphlet of Goussen mentioned in the next note. S. Bäumer, on the other hand, in his article, “Tatians Diatessaron, seine bisher. Lit. u. die Reconstruction des Textes nach einer neuentdeckten Handschrift” (Literarischer Handweiser, 1890, 153-169) which the present writer has not been able to see, perhaps refers simply to the Borgian ms.

24 Attention was called to these by Profs. Isaac H. Hall and R. J. H. Gottheil (Journal of Biblical Literature, x., 153 ff.; xi. 68 ff.); then by Prof. J. R. Harris (Contemp. Rev., Aug., 1895, p.27l ff., and, more fully, Fragments of the Com. of Ephr. Syr. on the Diatessaron; London, 1895) and by Goussen (Studia Theologica, fasc. i., Lips., 1895).

25 Prof. Harris promises an edition of this commentary.

26 Harris, Fragments, p 14, where the Syriac text is quoted.

27 Bib. Or., ii., 159 f. Most of them are repeated again by Bar Hebraeus (d. 1286), although some confusion is produced by his interweaving some phrases from Eusebius of Caesarea. (Bib. Or., i., 57 f., and a longer quotation in English in Contemp. Rev., Aug., 1895, p. 274 f.)

28 Lagarde’s statement (Nachrichten von der Königl. Gesellsch. der Wiss., etc., zu Göttingen, 1891, No. 4, p. 153) that a ms. had been discovered, appears to have been unfounded. Prof. Rahlfs of Göttingen kindly tells me that he believes this is so.

29 Migne, Patrol. graec., tom; lxxxiii., col. 369, 372.

30 Published at Venice in 1836.

31 The two Armenian mss. are dated a. d. 1195.

32 Evangelii Concordantis Expositio, facta a S. Ephraemo (Ven., 1876).

33 Forschungen. zur Geschichte des neutestamenntlichen, Kanons, I. Theil;

34 Edited by Ernestus Ranke, Marb. and Lips., 1868.

35 For other forms of the Diatessaron, of no critical importance, see S. Hemphill, The Diatessaron, of Tatian (London, 1888), Appendix D and the refs. there.

36 Further references, chiefly repetitions in one form or another of the statements we have quoted, may be found in a convenient form in Harnack, Gesch. d. altchrist. Lit. bis Euseb., 493-496; cf. also the works mentioned by Hill (op. cit.) p. 378 f.

37 cf. the words of Aphraates, senior contemporary of Ephraem: “As it is written in the beginning of the Gospel of our Vivifier: In the beginning was the Word.” (Patrol. Syr., pars i., tom. i., 21, lines 17-19).

38 Nachrichten von der Königl. Gesellsch. der Wiss., etc., March 17, 1886, No. 4, p. 151 ff.

39 See notes to Section 1, 81, and Section 4, 29.

40 See note to Section 55, 17.

41 The Armenian version of Ephraem is supposed to date from the fifth century.

42 Mai, Script. vet. nov. Coll., x., 191.

43 Overbeck, S. Ephraemi, etc., Opera Selecta, p. 220, lines 3-5.

44 Phillips, Doct. Add., p. 36, 15-17 [E. Tr. p. 34].

45 Moesinger, Evang. Concord., etc., p. xi.

46 The latest discussion of the question whether this really was Tatian is Mr. Rendel Harris’s article in the Contemp. Rev., Aug., 1895.

47 Best ed. by Eduard Schwartz; in .Texte und Untersuchungen, IV. Band, Heft 1.

48 “Tatian’s Diatessaron and the Analysis of the Pentateuch,” Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. ix., 1890, pt. ii., 201-215.

49 The refs., except where the footnotes indicate otherwise, are to the verses of the English or Greek Bible. The numbers of the Arabic verse refs; which follow the Vulgate and therefore in one or two passages differ from the English numbers by one may, however, have been occasionally retained through oversight. It is only the name of the gospel that can possibly be ancient.

50 It may be mentioned that it has been found very convenient to mark these figures on the margin of the Arabic text. An English index (that given here, or that in Hill’s volume) can then be used for the Arabic text also.

51 e.g., Section 8, 10. For a list of suggested emendations see at end of Index.

52 e.g., Section 52, 11.

53 e.g., Section 45, 33.

The Diatessaron of Tatian (Cont.) Introductory Notes.

1. In the Borgian ms.

In the name of the one God, the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit, to him be the glory for ever. We shall begin, with the help of God most high, the writing of the pure gospel, the blooming garden, called Diatessaron (a word meaning “fourfold”), the work compiled by Titianus the Greek out of the four evangelists — Matthew the elect, whose symbol is M, Mark the chosen, whose symbol is R, Luke the approved, whose symbol is K, and John the beloved, whose symbol is H. The work translated from Syriac into Arabic by the excellent and learned priest, Abu’l-Faraj ‘Abdulla ibn-at-Tayyib,1 may God grant him his favour. He began with the first of2 And he said: The Beginning3 of the Gospel of Jesus the Son of the living God. John:4 In the beginning, etc.


In the Vatican ms.

In the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit, giver of life, the God that is one in substance in his essence, and three in persons in his attributes. The first of his Gospel is He began the first of his Gospel with Mark. And he said: The Beginning of the Gospel of Jesus the Messiah, the Son of God. John: In the beginning, etc.






1 The ms. here has Tabib, but the name is correctly given in the Subscription (q.v.).

2 i.e., simply He began with.

3 The vowel signs as printed by Ciasca imply some such construction as And he said as a beginning: The Gospel, etc. But the vocalisation is of course not authoritative, and a comparison with the preface in the Vatican ms. suggests the rendering given above. The word translated Beginning in the two Introductory Notes is the very word (whichever spelling be adopted) used by Ibn-at-Tayyib himself in his comments on Mar_1:1-45. (at least according to the British Museum. ms.), although not in the gospel text prefixed to the Comments as it now stands, or indeed in any ms. Arabic gospel in the British Museum. This would seem to militate against our theory of the original form of this much-debated passage in the Introductory Notes, as indicated by the use of small type for the later inserted phrases . and the difficulty appears at first to be increased by the following words in Ibn-at-Tayyib’s comments on Mar_1:1-45. British Museum ms., fol. 190a, “and some say that the Greek citation and in the Diatessaron, which Tatianus the pupil of Justianus the philosopher wrote, the quotation is not written, “Isaiah” but, “as it is written in the prophet” This is a remarkable statement about the Diatessaron. But the sentence is hardly grammatical. Perhaps the words printed in italics originally formed a complete sentence by themselves, possibly on the margin. If this conjecture be correct we might emend, e.g., by restoring them to the margin, and repeating the last three words or some equivalent phrase in the text. It would be interesting to know how the Paris ms. reads. See Suggested Emendations.

4 Ciasca does not state whether the word John. occurs here in the Borgian ms. or not.

The Diatessaron of Tatian (Cont.) ss 1-7

The Text of the Diatessaron.

Section I.

1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God is the Joh_1:1   

2, 3 Word. This was in the beginning with God. Everything was by his hand, and Joh_1:2, Joh_1:3   

4 without him not even one existing thing was made. In him was life, and the life Joh_1:4   

5 is the light of men. And the light shineth in the darkness, and the darkness apprehended it not. Joh_1:5   

6 There was in the days of Herod the king a priest whose name was Zacharias, of the family of Abijah; and his wife was of the daughters of Aaron, and her name Luk_1:5 1   

7 was Elizabeth. And they were both righteous before God, walking in all his com- Luk_1:6   

8 mands, and in the uprightness of God without reproach. And they had no son, for Luk_1:7   

9 Elizabeth was barren, and they had both advanced in age. And while he discharged Luk_1:8   

10 Arabic p. 2 the duties of priest in the order of his service before God, according to the custom of the priesthood it was his turn to burn incense; so he entered the Luk_1:9   

11 temple of the Lord. And the whole gathering of the people were praying without at the Luk_1:10   

12 time of the incense. And there appeared unto Zacharias the angel of the Lord, stand- Luk_1:11   

13 ing at the right of the altar of incense; and Zacharias was troubled when he saw him, Luk_1:12   

14 and fear fell upon him. But the angel said unto him, Be not agitated,2 Zacharias, for thy prayer is heard, and thy wife Elizabeth shall bear thee a son, and thou shall Luk_1:13   

15 call his name John; and thou shalt have joy and gladness, and many shall rejoice Luk_1:14   

16 at his birth. And he shall be great before the Lord, and shall not drink wine nor strong drink, and he shall be filled with the Holy Spirit3 while he is in his mother’s Luk_1:15   

17 womb. And he shall turn back many of the children of Israel to the Lord their Luk_1:16   

18 God. And he shall go before him in the spirit, and in the power of Elijah the prophet, to turn back the heart of the fathers to the sons, and those that obey not to the knowledge4 of the righteous; and to prepare for the Lord a perfect people. Luk_1:17   

19 And Zacharias said unto the angel, How shall I know this, since I am an old man Luk_1:18   

20 and my wife is advanced in years? And the angel answered and said unto him, I am Gabriel, that standeth before God; and I was sent to speak unto thee, and give Luk_1:19   

21 thee tidings of this. Henceforth thou shall be speechless, and shalt not be able to speak until the day in which this shall come to pass, because thou didst not trust Luk_1:20   

22 this my word, which shall be accomplished in its time. And the people were standing awaiting Zacharias, and they were perplexed at his delaying in the temple. Luk_1:21   

23 Arabic p. 3 And when Zacharias went out, he was not able to speak unto them: so they knew that he had seen in the temple a vision; and he made signs unto them, and Luk_1:22   

24 continued dumb. And when the days of his service were completed, he departed to his dwelling. Luk_1:23   

25 And after those days Elizabeth his wife conceived; and she hid herself five Luk_1:24   

26 months, and said, This hath the Lord done unto me in the days when he looked upon me, to remove my reproach from among men. Luk_1:25   

27 And5 in the sixth month Gabriel the angel was sent from God to Galilee6 to a Luk_1:26   

28 city called Nazareth, to a virgin given in marriage to a man named Joseph, of the Luk_1:27   

29 house of David; and the virgin’s name was Mary. And the angel entered unto her and said unto her, Peace be unto thee, thou who art filled with grace. Our Lord Luk_1:28   

30 is with thee, thou blessed amongst women. And she, when she beheld, was agitated Luk_1:29   

31 at his word, and pondered what this salutation could be. And the angel said unto Luk_1:30   

32 her, Fear not, Mary, for thou hast found favour with God. Thou shall now con- Luk_1:31   

33 ceive, and bear a son, and call his name Jesus. This shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Most High; and the Lord God will give him the throne of Luk_1:32   

34 David his father: and he shall rule over the house of Jacob for ever; and to his Luk_1:33   

35 kingdom there shall be no end. Mary said unto the angel, How shall this be to Luk_1:34   

36 Arabic p. 4 me when no man hath known me? The angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Spirit will come, and the power of the Most High shall rest upon thee, and therefore shall he that is born of thee be pure, and shall be called the Son Luk_1:35   

37 of God. And lo, Elizabeth thy kinswoman, she also hath conceived a son in her old Luk_1:36   

38 age; and this is the sixth month with her, her that is called barren. For nothing is Luk_1:37   

39 difficult for God. Mary said, Lo, I am the handmaid of the Lord; let it be unto me according unto thy word. And the angel departed from her. Luk_1:38   

40 And then Mary arose in those days and went in haste into the hill country,7 to a8 Luk_1:39   

41 city of Judah; and entered into the house of Zacharias, and asked for the health of Luk_1:40   

42 Elizabeth. And when Elizabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the babe leaped in Luk_1:41   

43 her womb. And Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit; and cried with a loud voice and said unto Mary, Blessed art thou amongst women, and blessed is the Luk_1:42   

44 fruit that is in thy womb. Whence have I this privilege, that the mother of my Luk_1:43   

45 Lord should come unto me? When the sound of thy salutation reached my ears, Luk_1:44   

46 with great joy rejoiced9 the babe in my womb. And blessed is she who believed Luk_1:45   

47 that what was spoken to her from the Lord would be fulfilled. And Mary said, My soul doth magnify the Lord, Luk_1:46   

48 And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour, Luk_1:47   

49 Who hath looked upon the low estate of his handmaiden: Lo, henceforth, all generations10 shall pronounce blessing on me. Luk_1:48   

50 For11 he hath done great things for me, who is mighty, And holy is his name. Luk_1:49   

51 And his mercy embraceth them who fear him, Throughout the ages and the times. Luk_1:50   

52 Arabic p. 5 He wrought the victory with his arm, And scattered them that prided themselves in their opinions. Luk_1:51   

53 He overthrew them that acted haughtily from their thrones, And raised the lowly. Luk_1:52   

54 He satisfied with good things the hungry, And left the rich without anything. Luk_1:53   

55 He helped Israel his servant, And remembered his mercy Luk_1:54   

56 (According as he spake with our fathers) Unto Abraham and unto his seed for ever. Luk_1:55   

57 And Mary abode with Elizabeth about three months, and returned unto her house. Luk_1:56   

58, 59 And Elizabeth’s time of delivery was come; and she brought forth a son. And her neighbours and kinsfolk heard that God had multiplied his mercy towards her; Luk_1:57 Luk_1:58   

60 and they rejoiced with her. And when12 it was the eighth day, they came to circumcise the child, and called him Zacharias, calling him by the name of his father. Luk_1:59   

61 And his mother answered and said unto them, Not so; but he shall be called John. Luk_1:60   

62 And they said unto her, There is no man of thy kindred that is called by this name. Luk_1:61   

63, 64 And they made signs to his father, saying, How dost thou wish to name him? And he asked for a tablet, and wrote and said, His name is John. And every one won- Luk_1:62 Luk_1:63   

65 dered. And immediately his mouth was opened, and his tongue, and he spake and Luk_1:64   

66 praised God. And fear fell on all their neighbours: and this was spoken of13 in all Luk_1:65   

67 the mountains of Judah. And all who heard pondered in their hearts and said, What shall this child be? And the hand of the Lord was with him. Luk_1:66   

68 And Zacharias his father was filled with the Holy Spirit, and prophesied and said, Luk_1:67   

69 Blessed is the Lord, the God of Israel, Who hath cared for his people, and wrought for it salvation; Luk_1:68   

70 And hath raised for us the horn of salvation Arabic p. 6 In the house of David his servant Luk_1:69   

71 (As he spake by the mouth of his holy prophets from eternity), Luk_1:70   

72 That he might save us from our enemies, And from the hand of all them that hate us. Luk_1:71   

73 And he hath performed his mercy towards our fathers, And remembered his holy covenants, Luk_1:72   

74 And the oath which he sware unto Abraham our father, Luk_1:73   

75 That he would give us deliverance from the hand of our enemies, And without fear we shall14 serve before him Luk_1:74   

76 All our days with equity and righteousness. Luk_1:75   

77 And as for thee, O child, prophet of the Most High shalt thou be called. Thou shalt go forth before the face of the Lord to prepare his way, Luk_1:76   

78 To give the knowledge of salvation15 unto his people, For the forgiveness of their sins, Luk_1:77   

79 Through the mercy of16 the compassion of our God, With which he careth for17 us, to appear18 from on high Luk_1:78   

80 To give light to them that sit in darkness and under the shadow of death, And to set straight our feet in the way of peace. Luk_1:79   

81 And the child grew and became strong in the spirit, and abode in the desert until the time of his appearing unto the children of Israel. Luk_1:80  





1 On the margin of the Vatican ms., fol. 1a, are written by a later hand these words, The first of his Gospel. The first of the Evangel (is) the Gospel of Luke followed by the text of the first four verses of Luke, and that in turn by the words, Four complete Gospels, Matthew, and Mark, and Luke, and John. See Ciasca’s Essay, cited above (Introduction, 5), p. 468.

2 This word is constantly recurring: in the sense of fear.

3 Everywhere, except in the introductory notes, the Arabic is the Spirit of Holiness, as in the Arabic versions.

4 See Section 28, 17.

5 The Vat. ms. has over this verse, The second section, from the Gospel of Luke, i. e, as divided in the Syriac and Arabic versions.

6 The Borgian ms. omits to Galilee.

7 Vatican ms., like that described by Gildemeister (see Introduction, 20) has into Galilee, (cf. Section 8, 10).

8 Lit. the, a form due to Syriac influence (cf. Section 2, 12, and passim).

9 The Syriac versions (like the Greek) have the same word here as in Luk_1:41.

10 The Arabic word ordinarily means tribe or nation, but in this work it regularly represents the Syriac word used in the N. T. for generation

11 The Arabic would naturally be rendered, the blessing on me, That; but a number of passages in this work seem to justify the rendering given in the text (cf., e; g., Section 46, 54, and especially Section 15, 40).

12 The text is indistinct in the Vatican ms. The reading seems to be conflate, the doublets being when it was, which is the reading of Ibn-at-Tayyib’s Commentary, and on.

13 Lit. described (cf. Section 2, 46).

14 Or, should.

15 Here and elsewhere the Arabic translator uses life and live and give life, as in Syriac, for salvation, etc.

16 Borgian ms. has and for of

17 The word used in the Peshitta means visit, either in the sense of caring for or in that of frequenting. See Section 24, 29.

18 So Borgian ms. The Vatican ms. is very indistinct. Lagarde (see Introduction, 13), quoting Guidi, prints Whereby there visiteth us the manifestation from on high. The difference in Arabic is in a single stroke.



Section II.


1 Arabic p. 7 Now1 the birth of Jesus the Messiah was on this wise: In the time when his  mother was given in marriage to Joseph, before they came together, Mat_1:18   

2 she was found with child of the Holy Spirit. And Joseph her husband was a just man and did not wish to expose her, and he purposed to put her away secretly. Mat_1:19   

3 But when he thought of this, the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, and said unto him, Joseph, son of David, fear not to take Mary thy wife, for that Mat_1:20   

4 which is begotten2 in her is of the Holy Spirit. She shall bear a son, and thou shalt Mat_1:21   

5 call his name Jesus, and he shall save3 his people from their sins. And all this was that the saying from the Lord by the prophet might be fulfilled: Mat_1:22   

6 Behold, the virgin shall conceive, and bear a son,  And they shall call his name Immanuel, Mat_1:23   

7 which is, being interpreted, With us is our God. And when Joseph arose from his Mat_1:24   

8 sleep, he did as the angel of the Lord commanded him, and took his wife; and knew her not until she brought forth her firstborn son. Mat_1:25   

9 And in those days there went forth a decree from Augustus Caesar that all the Luk_2:1   

10 people of his dominion4 should be enrolled. This first enrolment was5 while Qui- Luk_2:2   

11, 12 rinius was governor of Syria. And every man went to be enrolled in his city. And Joseph went up also from Nazareth, a city of Galilee, to Judaea, to the city of David Luk_2:3   

13 which is called Bethlehem (for he was of the house of David and of his tribe), with Luk_2:4   

14 Arabic p. 8 Mary his betrothed, she being with child, to be enrolled there. And while Luk_2:5   

15 she was there the days for her being delivered were accomplished. And she brought forth her firstborn son; and she wrapped him in swaddling cloths and laid him in a manger, because there was no place for them where they were staying. Luk_2:6   

16 And there were in that region shepherds abiding, keeping their flock in the watch Luk_2:7   

17 of the night. And behold, the angel of God came unto them, and the glory of the Luk_2:8   

18 Lord shone upon them; and they were greatly terrified. And the angel said unto them, Be not terrified; for I bring you tidings of great joy which shall be to the Luk_2:9   

19 whole world; there is born to you this day a Saviour, which is the Lord the Mes- Luk_2:10   

20 siah, in the city of David. And this is a sign for you: ye shall find a babe wrapped Luk_2:11   

21 in swaddling cloths and laid in a manger. And there appeared with the angels suddenly many heavenly forces praising6 God and saying, Luk_2:12   

22 Praise be to God in the highest, And on the earth peace, and good hope to men. Luk_2:13   

23 And when the angels departed from them to heaven, the shepherds spake to one another and said, We will go to Bethlehem and see this word which hath been, as Luk_2:14   

24 the Lord made known unto us. And they came with haste, and found Mary and Luk_2:15   

25 Joseph, and the babe laid in a manger. And when they saw, they reported the word Luk_2:16   

26 which was spoken to them about the child. And all that heard wondered at the Luk_2:17   

27 description which the shepherds described7 to them. But Mary kept these8sayings Luk_2:18   

28 and discriminated9 them in her heart. And those shepherds returned, magnifying and praising God for all that they had seen and heard, according as it was described unto them. Luk_2:19   

29 Arabic p. 9 And when eight days were fulfilled that the child should be circumcised, his name was called Jesus, being that by which he was called by the angel before his conception in the womb. Luk_2:20   

30 And when the days of their purification according to the law of Moses were Luk_2:21   

31 completed, they took him up to Jerusalem to present him before the Lord (as it is written in the law of the Lord, Every male opening the womb shall be called the Luk_2:22   

32 holy thing of the Lord), and to give a sacrificial victim as it is said in the law of Luk_2:23   

33 the Lord, A pair of doves or two young pigeons. And there was in Jerusalem a man whose name was Simeon; and this man was upright and pious, and expecting Luk_2:24   

34 the consolation of Israel; and the Holy Spirit was upon him. And it had been said unto him by the Holy Spirit, that he should not see death till he had seen with Luk_2:25   

35 his eyes the Messiah10 of the Lord. And this man came by the Spirit to the temple; and at the time when his parents brought in the child Jesus, that they might Luk_2:26   

36 present for him a sacrifice, as it is written in the law, he bare him in his arms and praised God and said, Luk_2:27   

37 Now loosest thou the bonds of thy servant, O Lord, in peace,11 According to thy saying; Luk_2:28   

38 For mine eye hath witnessed thy mercy, Luk_2:29   

39 Which thou hast made ready because of the whole world; Luk_2:30   

40 A light for the unveiling12 of the nations, And a glory to thy people Israel. Luk_2:31   

41 And Joseph and his mother were marvelling at the things which were being said Luk_2:32   

42 concerning him. And Simeon blessed them and said to Mary his mother, Behold, he is set for the overthrow and rising of many in Israel; and for a sign of conten- Luk_2:33   

43 tion; and a spear13 shall pierce14 through thine own soul; that the thoughts of the Luk_2:34 Luk_2:35   

44 Arabic p. 10 hearts of many may be revealed. And Anna the prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher, was also advanced in years (and she dwelt Luk_2:36   

45 with her husband seven years from her virginity, and she remained a widow about eighty-four years); and she left not the temple, and served night and day with Luk_2:37   

46 fasting and prayer. And she also rose in that hour and thanked the Lord, and she Luk_2:38   

47 spake of him with every one who was expecting the deliverance of Jerusalem. And when they had accomplished everything according to what is in the law of the Lord, they returned to Galilee, to Nazareth their city. Luk_2:39  





1 This is preceded in Vatican ms. by the genealogy, Mat_1:1-17 (see Introduction, 13), with the marginal note The Beginning of the Gospel of Matthew. (Lagarde op. cit., 1886, p. 154.) The text presents nothing worthy of note in this place except that verse 16, construed in the same principle as the preceding verses, to which, except in the words printed in italics, it is strictly parallel in construction, reads thus: “Jacob begat Joseph, the husband of Mary, who of her begat Jesus, the Messiah” (cf. the remarkable reading of Sin. Syriac). As it stands, this is the only possible interpretation of the words, for who is masculine. But a mistake in the gender of a relative pronoun is very common in Arabic among illiterate people, while in Syriac there is, to begin with, no distinction. If then we correct the relative, who of her will become of whom (fem.), and begat will of course be construed as passive. We thus get the text followed in Ibn-at-Tayyib’s Commentary, the ordinary reading of the Peshitta, of whom was born Jesus.

2 The Arabic might even more naturally be rendered born, thus ,giving us the reading that Isho’dad tells us was that of the Diatessaron (Harris, Fragments, p. 16 f.); but throughout the whole genealogy (see Section 1, 81), this word has been used by the Vat. ms. in the sense of begat. Here the Borgian ms. has of her for in her; but Ibn-at-Tayyib in his Commentary discusses why Matthew wrote in and not of.

3 cf. Section 1, 78.

4 The Arabic expression is clearly meant to represent that used in the Peshitta.

5 This is the most natural meaning of the Arabic sentence; which, however, is simply a word-for-word reproduction of the Peshitta.

6 The Arab. represents Syr. idiom.

7 cf. Section 1, 66.

8 Borgian ms. inserts all above the line, after these. The meaning ought then to be, these things, namely, all the sayings.

9 The Arab. might mean set them apart; but the Syriac is against this.

10 Or, anointed.

11 For order cf. in part Sin. Syriac.

12 i.e., becoming manifest.

13 So also in Syriac versions and the quotation of Isho’dad from Ephraem (Harris, Fragments, p. 34), but not the Armenian version.

14 The Arabic sides with the Peshitta and Ibn-at-Tayyib’s Commentary, against the remarkable reading of Sin. supported by Isho’dad, as in last note Syriac text, and the Armenian in Hill, p. 336. See now also The Guardian, Dec. 18, 1895.



Section III.


1, 2 And after that,1 the Magi came from the east to Jerusalem, and said, Where is the King of the Jews which was born? We have seen his star in the east, and have Mat_2:1 Mat_2:2   

3 come to worship him. And Herod the king heard, and he was troubled, and all Mat_2:3   

4 Jerusalem with him. And he gathered all the chief priests and the scribes of the Mat_2:4   

5 people, and asked them in what place2 the Messiah should be born. They said, In Bethlehem of Judaea: thus it is written in the prophet, Mat_2:5   

6 Thou also, Bethlehem of Judah, Art not contemptible among the kings of Judah: From thee shall go forth a king, And he shall be a shepherd to my people Israel. Mat_2:6   

7 Then Herod called the Magi secretly, and inquired of them the time at which Mat_2:7   

8 the star appeared to them. And he sent them to Bethlehem, and said unto them, Go and search about the child diligently; and when ye have found him, come and Mat_2:8   

9 Arabic p. 11 make known to me, that I also may go and worship him. And they, when they heard the king, departed; and lo, the star which they had seen in the east went before them, until it came and stood above the place where the child Mat_2:9   

10, 11 was. And when they beheld the star, they rejoiced with very great joy. And they entered the house and beheld the child with Mary his mother, and fell down worshipping him, and opened their saddle-bags and offered to him offerings, gold and Mat_2:10 Mat_2:11   

12 myrrh and frankincense. And they saw in a dream3 that they should not return to Herod, and they travelled by another way in going to their country. Mat_2:12   

13 And when they had departed, the angel of the Lord appeared in a dream to Joseph, and said unto him, Rise, take the child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I speak to thee; for Herod is determined to seek the child Mat_2:13   

14 to slay him. And Joseph arose and took the child and his mother in the night, and Mat_2:14   

15 fled into Egypt, and remained in it until the time of the death of Herod: that that might be fulfilled which was said by the Lord in the prophet, which said, From Mat_2:15   

16 Egypt did I call my son. And Herod then, when he saw that he was mocked of the Magi, was very angry, and sent and killed all the male children which were in Bethlehem and all its borders, from two years old and under, according to the time Mat_2:16   

17 which he had inquired from the Magi. Then was fulfilled the saying in Jeremiah the prophet, which said, Mat_2:17   

18 A voice was heard in Ramah, Weeping and much lamentation; Rachel weeping4 for her children, And not willing to be consoled for their loss. Mat_2:18   

19 But when Herod the king died, the angel of the Lord appeared in a dream to Mat_2:19   

20 Arabic p. 12 Joseph in Egypt, and said unto him, Rise and take the child and his mother, and go into the land of Israel; for they have died who sought the child’s life. Mat_2:20   

21 And Joseph rose and took the child and his mother, and came to the land Mat_2:21   

22 of Israel. But when he heard that Archelaus had become king over Judaea instead of Herod his father, he feared to go thither; and he saw in a dream that he should Mat_2:22   

23 go into the land of Galilee, and that he should abide in a city called Nazareth: that the saying in the prophet might be fulfilled, that he should be called a Nazarene. Mat_2:23   

24 And the child grew, and became strong in spirit, becoming filled with wisdom; and the grace of God was upon him. Luk_2:40   

25 And his kinsfolk5 used to go every year to Jerusalem at the feast of the pass- Luk_2:41   

26 over. And when he was twelve years old, they went up according to their custom, Luk_2:42   

27 to the feast. And when the days were accomplished, they returned; and the child Luk_2:43   

28 Jesus remained in Jerusalem, and Joseph and his mother knew not: and they supposed that he was with the children of their company. And when they had gone one day’s journey, they sought him beside their people and those who knew them, Luk_2:44   

29 and they found him not; so they returned to Jerusalem and sought him again. Luk_2:45   

30 And after three days they found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the teach- Luk_2:46   

31 ers, hearing them and asking them questions; and all who heard him wondered at Luk_2:47   

32 his wisdom and his words. And when they saw him they wondered, and his mother said unto him, My son, why hast thou dealt with us thus? behold, I and thy father Luk_2:48   

33 have been seeking for thee with much anxiety. And he said unto them, Why were Luk_2:49   

34 ye seeking me? Know6 ye not that I must be in the house of my Father? And they Luk_2:50   

35 understood not the word which he spake unto them. And he went down with them, and came to Nazareth; and he was obedient to them: and his mother used to keep all these sayings in her heart. Luk_2:51   

36 Arabic p. 13 And Jesus grew in his stature and wisdom, and in grace with God and men. Luk_2:52   

37 And in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, when Pontius Pilate was governor in Judaea, and one of the four rulers, Herod, in Galilee; and Philip his brother, one of the four rulers, in Ituraea and in the district of Trachonitis; and Luk_3:1   

38 Lysanias, one of the four rulers, in Abilene; in the chief-priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas, the command7 of God went forth to John the son of Zacharias in the Luk_3:2   

39 desert. And he came into all the region which is about Jordan, proclaiming the Luk_3:3   

40 baptism of repentance unto8 the forgiveness of sins. And he was preaching in the Mat_3:1   

41 wilderness of Judaea, and saying, Repent ye; the kingdom of heaven is come near. Mat_3:2   

42 This is he that was spoken of in Isaiah the prophet, The voice which crieth in the desert, Mat_3:3   

43 Prepare ye the way of the Lord, And make straight in the plain, paths for our God. Luk_3:4   

44 All the valleys shall become filled, And all the mountains and hills shall become low; And the rough shall become plain, And the difficult place, easy; Luk_3:5   

45 And all flesh shall see the salvation9 of God. Luk_3:6   

46 This man came to bear witness, that he might bear witness to the light, that Joh_1:7   

47 every man might believe through his mediation. He was not the light, bat that he Joh_1:8   

48 might bear witness to the light, which was the light of truth, that giveth light to Joh_1:9   

49 every man coming into the world. He was in the world, and the world was made Joh_1:10   

50 by him, and the world knew him not. He came unto his own, and his own received Joh_1:11   

51 him not. And those who received him, to them gave he the power10 that they might Joh_1:12   

52 be sons of God, – those which believe in his name: which were born, not of blood, Joh_1:13   

53 nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of a man, but of God. And the Word became flesh, and took up his abode among us; and we saw his glory as the glory Joh_1:14   

54 Arabic p. 14 of the only Son from the Father, which is full of grace and equity.11 John bare witness of him, and cried, and said, This is he that I said cometh after me and Joh_1:15   

55 was before me, because he was before me.12 And of his fulness received Joh_1:16   

56 we all grace for grace. For the law was given through the mediation of Moses, but truth and grace were13 through Jesus Christ. Joh_1:17  





1 On the substitution of this general phrase for Mat_2:1, see the remarks of Harris in Fragments, etc., p. 37 ff.

2 This periphrasis for where is very characteristic of this work.

3 So in later Arabic and some Arabic versions. According to classical usage the word means sleep.

4 Or, is weeping, and so in next line is not willing.

5 A general word cf. Syr. versions.

6 Or, knew.

7 There is a very rare use of this Arabic word in the Hebrew sense of saying.

8 So Vat. ms. The Borgian MS. has with.

9 See note on Section 1, 78.

10 Or, authority.

11 In Syr. this word also means truth

12 Or, earlier than I.

13 i.e., came to be.



Section IV.


1 No man hath seen God at any time; the only Son, God,1 which is in the bosom of his Father, he hath told of him. Joh_1:18   

2 And this is the witness of John when the Jews sent to him from Jerusalem priests Joh_1:19   

3 and Levites to ask him, Who art thou? And he acknowledged, and denied not; Joh_1:20   

4 and he confessed that he was not the Messiah. And they asked him again, What then? Art thou Elijah? And he said, I am not he. Art thou a prophet? He Joh_1:21   

5 said, No. They said unto him, Then who art thou? that we may answer them that Joh_1:22   

6 sent us. What sayest thou of thyself? And he said, I am the voice that crieth in Joh_1:23   

7 the desert, Repair ye the way of the Lord, as said Isaiah the prophet. And they Joh_1:24   

8 that were sent were from2 the Pharisees. And they asked him and said unto him, Why baptizest thou now, when thou art not the Messiah, nor Elijah, nor a prophet? Joh_1:25   

9 John answered and said unto them, I baptize with3 water: among you is standing Joh_1:26   

10 one whom ye know not: this is he who I said cometh after me and was before Joh_1:27   

11 me, the latchets of whose shoes I am not worthy to unloose. And that was in Bethany beyond Jordan, where John was baptizing. Joh_1:28   

12 Now John’s raiment was camel’s hair, and he was girded with skins, and his food Mat_3:4   

13 Arabic p. 15 was of locusts and honey of the wilderness.4 Then went out unto him the people of Jerusalem, and all Judaea, and all the region which is about the Mat_3:5   

14, 15 Jordan; and they were baptized of him in the river Jordan, confessing their sins. But when he saw many of the Pharisees5 and Sadducees6 coming to be baptized, he said unto them, Ye children of vipers, who hath led you to flee from the wrath to come? Mat_3:6 Mat_3:7   

16, 17 Do now the fruits which are worthy of repentance; and think and say not within yourselves, We have a father, even Abraham; for I say unto you, that God is able to Mat_3:8 Mat_3:9   

18 raise up of these stones children unto Abraham. Behold, the axe hath been laid at the roots of the trees, and so every tree that beareth not good fruit shall be taken and Mat_3:10   

19 cast into the fire. And the multitudes were asking him and saying, What shall we do? Luk_3:10   

20 He answered and said unto them, He that hath two tunics shall7 give to him that Luk_3:11   

21 hath not; and he that hath food shall7 do likewise. And the publicans also came Luk_3:12   

22 to be baptized, and they said unto him, Teacher, what shall we do? He said unto Luk_3:13   

23 them, Seek not more than what ye are commanded to seek. And the servants8 of the guard asked him and said, And we also, what shall we do? He said unto them, Do not violence to any man, nor wrong him; and let your allowances satisfy you. Luk_3:14   

24 And when the people were conjecturing about John, and all of them thinking Luk_3:15   

25 in their hearts whether he were haply9 the Messiah, John answered and said unto them, I baptize you with water; there cometh one after me who is stronger than I, the latchets of whose shoes I am not worthy to loosen; he will baptize you with the Luk_3:16   

26 Arabic p. 16 Holy Spirit and fire: who taketh the fan in his hand to cleanse his threshing-floors, and the wheat he gathereth into his garners, while the straw he shall burn in fire which can10 not be put out. Luk_3:17   

27 And other things he taught and preached among the people. Luk_3:18   

28 Then came Jesus from Galilee to the Jordan to John, to be baptized of him. Mat_3:13   

29 And Jesus was about thirty years old, and it was supposed that he was the son of Luk_3:23   

30 Joseph.11 And John saw Jesus coming unto him, and said, This is the Lamb of Joh_1:29   

31 God, that taketh on itself the burden of the sins of the world! This is he concerning whom I said, There cometh after me a man who was before me, because he was Joh_1:30   

32 before me.12 And I knew him not; but that he should be made manifest to Israel, Joh_1:31   

33 for this cause came I to baptize with water. And John was hindering him and Mat_3:14   

34 saying, I have need of being baptized by thee, and comest thou to me? Jesus answered him and said, Suffer this now: thus it is our duty to fulfil all righteous- Mat_3:15   

35 ness. Then he suffered him. And when all the people were baptized, Jesus also Luk_3:21   

36 was baptized. And immediately he went up out of the water, and heaven opened Mat_3:16   

37 Arabic p. 17 to him,13 and the Holy Spirit descended upon him in the similitude of the Luk_3:22   

38 body of a dove; and lo, a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Mat_3:17   

39 Son, in whom I am well pleased. And John bare witness and said, I beheld the Joh_1:32   

40 Spirit descend from heaven like a dove; and it abode upon him. But I knew him not; but he that sent me to baptize with water, he said unto me, Upon whomsoever thou shalt behold the Spirit descending and lighting upon him, the same is he that Joh_1:33   

41 baptizeth with the Holy Spirit. And I have seen and borne witness that this is the Son of God. Joh_1:34   

42, 43 And Jesus returned from the Jordan, filled with the Holy Spirit. And immediately the Spirit took him out into the wilderness, to be tried of the devil;14 and he Luk_4:1 Mar_1:12 Mar_1:13   

44 was with the beasts. And he fasted forty days and forty nights. And he ate noth- Mat_4:2 Luk_4:2   

45 ing in those days, and at the end of them he hungered. And the tempter came and said unto him, If thou art the Son of God, speak, and these stones shah become Mat_4:2, Mat_4:3   

46 bread. He answered and said, It is written, Not by bread alone shall man live, but Mat_4:4   

47 by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God. Then the devil14 brought Mat_4:5   

48 him to the holy city, and set him on the pinnacle of the temple, and said unto him, If thou art the Son of God, cast thyself down: for it is written, He shall give his angels charge concerning thee: And they shall take thee on their arms, So that thy foot shall not stumble against a stone. Mat_4:6   

49 Jesus said unto him, And15 it is written also, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy Mat_4:7   

50 God. And the devil16 took him up to a high mountain, and shewed him all the king- Luk_4:5   

51 Arabic p. 18 doms of the earth, and their glory, in the least time; and the devil16 said unto him, To thee will I give all this dominion, and its glory, which is delivered to Luk_4:6   

52 me that I may give it to whomsoever I will. If then thou wilt worship before me, all of it shall be thine. Luk_4:7  





1 cf. Peshitta, etc. not Cur.: cf. also Gildemeister, op. cit., p. 29, on Luk_9:20.

2 Lit. from the side of.

3 Or, in.

4 On the original Diatessaron reading, honey and milk of the mountains, or, milk and honey of the mountains, which latter Ibn-at-Tayyib cites in his Commentary folio 44b, 45a as a reading, but without any allusion to the Diatessaron, see, e.g., now Harris, Fragments of the Com. of Ephr. Syr. upon the Diatessaron. London, 1895) p. 17 f.

5 The translator uses invariably an Arabic word name of a sect meaning Separatists.

6 Lit. Zindiks, a name given to Persian dualists and others.

7 Grammar requires this rendering, but solecisms in this kind of word are very common, and in this work e.g., Section 48, 21 the jussive particle is sometimes omitted. We should therefore probably render let him give, let him do, etc.

8 cf. Peshitta, where the word has its special meaning, soldiers.

9 Our translator constantly uses this Arabic word which we render haply, or, can it be? Or, perhaps, etc. to represent the Syriac word used in this place. The latter is used in various ways, and need not be interrogative, as our translator renders it cf. especially Section 17, 6.

10 Or, shall.

11 The Vatican ms. here gives the genealogy Luk_3:23-38, of which we shall quote only the last words: the son of Adam; who was from God. If this were not the reading of the Peshitta against Sin. and Ibn-at-Tayyib’s Commentary, one might explain from as a corruption of the Arabic son of, the words being very similar. On the Borgian ms. see Section 55, 17.

12 cf. Section 3, 54.

13 For the statement of Isho’dad see Introduction, 10, “And straightway, as the Diatessaron testifieth, light shone forth”, etc., see Harris, Fragments etc., p 43 f.

14 Lit. calumniator.

15 Borgian ms. omits and.

16 Lit. backbiter, a different word from that used above in Section 4, 43, 47.



Section V.


1 Jesus answered and said unto him, Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written, Thou Mat_4:10   

2 shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him alone shalt thou serve. And when the Luk_4:13   

3 devil1 had completed all his temptations, he departed from him for a season. And behold, the angels drew near and ministered unto him. Mat_4:11   

4, 5 And next day John was standing, and two of his disciples; and he saw Jesus as Joh_1:35 Joh_1:36   

6 he was walking, and said, Behold, the Lamb of God! And his two disciples heard Joh_1:37   

7 him saying this,2 and they followed Jesus. And Jesus turned and saw them coming after him, and said unto them, What seek ye? They said unto him, Our master, Joh_1:38   

8 where art thou staying? And he said unto them, Come and see. And they came and saw his place, and abode with him that day: and it was about the tenth hour. Joh_1:39   

9 One of the two which heard from3 John, and followed Jesus, was Andrew the Joh_1:40   

10 brother of Simon. And he saw first Simon his brother, and said unto him, We have Joh_1:41   

11 found the Messiah. And he brought him unto Jesus. And Jesus looked upon him and said, Thou art Simon, son of Jonah: thou shalt be called Cephas.4 Joh_1:42   

12 And on the next day Jesus desired to go forth to Galilee, and he found Philip, Joh_1:43   

13 Arabic p. 19 and said unto him, Follow me. Now Philip was of Bethsaida, of the city of Joh_1:44   

14 Andrew and Simon. And Philip found Nathanael, and said unto him, He of whom Moses did write in the law and in the prophets, we have found that Joh_1:45   

15 he is Jesus the son of Joseph of Nazareth. Nathanael said unto him, Is it possible that there can be any good thing from Nazareth? Philip said unto him, Come and Joh_1:46   

16 see. And Jesus saw Nathanael coming to him, and said of him, This is indeed a5 Joh_1:47   

17 son of Israel in whom is no guile. And Nathanael said unto him, Whence knowest thou me? Jesus said unto him, Before Philip called thee, while thou wast under the Joh_1:48   

18 fig tree, I saw thee. Nathanael answered and said unto him, My Master, thou art Joh_1:49   

19 the Son of God; thou art the King of Israel. Jesus said unto him, Because I said unto thee, I saw thee under the fig tree, hast thou believed? thou shalt see what is Joh_1:50   

20 greater than this. And he said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Henceforth ye shall see the heavens opened, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of man. Joh_1:51   

21 And Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit to Galilee. Luk_4:14   

22 And on the third day there was a feast in Cana,6 a5 city of Galilee; and the Joh_2:1   

23 mother of Jesus was there: and Jesus also and his disciples were invited to the Joh_2:2   

24 feast. And they lacked wine: and his mother said unto Jesus, They have no wine. Joh_2:3   

25 And Jesus said unto her, What have I to do with thee, woman? hath not mine Joh_2:4   

26 hour come?7 And his mother said unto the servants, What he saith unto you, do. Joh_2:5   

27 And there were there six vessels of stone, placed for the Jews’ purification, such as Joh_2:6   

28 Arabic p. 20 would contain two or three jars. And Jesus said unto them, Fill the vessels Joh_2:7   

29 with water. And they filled them to the top. He said unto them, Draw Joh_2:8   

30 out now, and present to the ruler of the feast. And they did so. And when the ruler of the company tasted that water which had become wine, and knew not whence it was(but the servants knew, because they filled up the water), the ruler of the company called Joh_2:9   

31 the bridegroom, and said unto him, Every man presenteth first the good wine, and on intoxication he bringeth what is poor; but thou hast kept the good wine until Joh_2:10   

32 now. And this is the first sign8 which Jesus did in Cans of Galilee, and manifested Joh_2:11   

33 his glory; and his disciples believed on him. And his fame spread in all the country Luk_4:14   

34 which was around them. And he taught in their synagogues, and was glorified Luk_4:15   

35 by9 every man. And he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up, and entered, according to his custom, into the synagogue on the sabbath day, and stood Luk_4:16   

36 up to read. And he was given the book of Isaiah the prophet. And Jesus opened the book and found the place where it was written, Luk_4:17   

37 The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, And for this anointed he me, to preach good tidings to the poor; And he hath sent me to heal the broken-hearted, And to proclaim forgiveness to the evil-doers,10 and sight to the blind, And to bring the broken into forgiveness,11 Luk_4:18   

38 And to proclaim an acceptable year of the Lord. Luk_4:19   

39 And he rolled up the book and gave it to the servant, and went and sat down: Luk_4:20   

40 and the eyes of all that were in the synagogue were observing him. And he began to say unto them, To-day hath this scripture been fulfilled which ye have heard with Luk_4:21   

41 your ears. And they all bare him witness, and wondered at the words of grace which were proceeding from his mouth. Luk_4:22   

42 Arabic p. 21 And from that time began Jesus to proclaim the gospel of the kingdom Mat_4:17   

43 of God, and to say, Repent ye, and believe in the gospel. The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of heaven hath come near. Mar_1:15   

44 And while he was walking on the shore of the sea of Galilee, he saw two brethren, Simon who was called Cephas, and Andrew his brother, casting their nets into Mat_4:18   

45 the sea; for they were fishers. And Jesus said unto them, Follow me, and I will Mat_4:19   

46 make you fishers of men. And they immediately left their nets there and followed Mat_4:20   

47 him. And when he went on from thence, he saw other two brothers, James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, in the ship with Zebedee their father, mending Mat_4:21   

48 their nets; and Jesus called them. And they immediately forsook the ship and their father Zebedee, and followed him. Mat_4:22   

49 And when the multitude gathered unto him to hear the word of God, while he Luk_5:1   

50 was standing on the shore of the sea of Gennesaret, he saw two boats standing beside the sea, while12 the two fishers which were gone out of them were washing their Luk_5:2   

51 nets. And one of them belonged to Simon Cephas. And Jesus went up and sat down in it, and commanded that they should move away a little from the land into Luk_5:3   

52 the water. And he sat down and taught the multitudes from the boat. And when he had left off his speaking, he said unto Simon, Put out into the deep, and cast your Luk_5:4   

53 net for a draught. And Simon answered and said unto him, My Master, we toiled Luk_5:5   

54 all night and caught nothing; now13 at thy word I will cast the net. And when they did this, there were enclosed14 a great many fishes; and their net was on the Luk_5:6   

55 point of breaking. And they beckoned to their comrades that were in the other boat, to come and help them. And when they came, they filled both boats, so that they were on the point of sinking. Luk_5:7  





1 Lit. backbiter, a different word from that used above in Section 4, 43, 47.

2 Or, speaking.

3 cf. Peshitta.

4 The Arabic word used throughout this work means Stones.

5 Lit. the cf. note to Section 1, 40.

6 Arabic Qatna. at Section 5, 32, Qâtina, following the Syriac form.

7 The reading of Cur. and Sin. is not known; but cf. Moesinger, p. 53, and Isho`dad quoted in Harris, Fragments, etc., p. 46.

8 Perhaps a comma should be inserted after sign.

9 If the text does not contain a misprint the word for by is wanting in both mss. It should doubtless be restored as in Section 7, 3.

10 Evil-doers could easily be an Arabic copyist’s corruption of captives, but the word used here for forgiveness could hardly spring from an Arabic release in Ibn-at-Tayyib’s Commentary, where the thing seems to have happened’ a different word is used. In Syriac, however, they are the same; while the first pair contain the same consonants

11 See preceding note.

12 Or, but.

13 Borgian ms. has but. The Arabic expressions are very similar.

14 Borgian ms. has he did this, he enclosed, on which see Section 38, 43. Either reading could spring from the other, within the Arabic


Section VI.


1 Arabic p. 22 But when Simon Cephas saw this he fell before the feet of Jesus, and said unto him, My Lord, I beseech of thee to depart from me, for I am Luk_5:8   

2 a sinful man. And amazement took possession of him, and of all who were with him, Luk_5:9   

3 because of the draught of the fishes which they had taken. And thus also were James and John the sons of Zebedee overtaken,1who were Simon’s partners. And Jesus said Luk_5:10   

4 unto Simon, Fear not; henceforth thou shalt be a fisher of men unto life. And they brought the boats to the land; and they left everything, and followed him. Luk_5:11   

5 And after that came Jesus and his disciples into the land of Judaea; and he went Joh_3:22   

6 about there with them, and baptized. And John also was baptizing in Ænon, which is beside Salim, because there was much water there: and they came, and were bap- Joh_3:23   

7, 8 tized. And John was not yet come into prison. And there was an inquiry between Joh_3:24 Joh_3:25   

9 one of John’s disciples and one of the Jews about purifying. And they2 came unto John, and said unto him, Our master, he that was with thee beyond Jordan, to whom Joh_3:26   

10 thou hast borne witness, behold, he also baptizeth, and many come to him. John answered and said unto them,3 A man can receive nothing of himself, except it be Joh_3:27   

11 given him4 from heaven. Ye are they that bear witness unto me that I said, I am Joh_3:28   

12 not the Messiah, but I am one sent5 before him. And he that hath a bride is a bridegroom: and the friend of the bridegroom is he that standeth and listeneth to him, and rejoiceth greatly because of the bridegroom’s voice. Lo now,6 behold, my Joh_3:29   

13, 14 Arabic p. 23 joy becometh complete.7 And he must increase and I decrease. For8 he that is come from above is higher than everything; and he that is of the earth, of the earth he is, and of the earth he speaketh; and he that came down from heaven is Joh_3:30 Joh_3:31   

15 higher than all. And he beareth witness of what he hath seen and heard: and no man Joh_3:32   

16 receiveth his witness. And he that hath received his witness hath asserted9 that he is Joh_3:33   

17 truly God.10 And he whom God hath sent speaketh the words11 of God: God gave Joh_3:34   

18 not the Spirit by measure. The Father loveth the Son, and hath put everything in Joh_3:35   

19 his hands. Whosoever believeth in the Son hath eternal12 life; but whosoever obeyeth not the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God cometh13 upon him. Joh_3:36   

20 And Jesus learned14 that the Pharisees had heard that he had received many dis- Joh_4:1   

21 ciples, and that he was baptizing more than John (not that Jesus was himself bap- Joh_4:2   

22 tizing, but his disciples); and so he left Judaea. Joh_4:3   

23 And Herod the governor, because he used to be rebuked by John because of Herodias the wife of Philip his brother, and for all the sins which he was commit- Luk_3:19   

24 ting, added to all that also this, that he shut up John in prison. Luk_3:20   

25 And when Jesus heard that John was delivered up, he went away to Galilee. Mat_4:12   

26 And he entered again into Cana, where he had made the water wine. And there Joh_4:46   

27 was at Capernaum a king’s servant, whose son was sick. And this man heard that Jesus was come from Judaea to Galilee; and he went to him, and besought of him that he would come down and heal his son; for he had come near unto death. Joh_4:47   

28, 29 Arabic p. 24 Jesus said unto him, Except ye see signs and wonders, ye do15 not believe. The king’s servant said unto him, My Lord, come down, that the child die not. Joh_4:48 Joh_4:49   

30 Jesus said unto him, Go; for thy son is alive. And that man believed the Joh_4:50   

31 word which Jesus spake, and went. And when he went down, his servants met him Joh_4:51   

32 and told him, and16 said unto him, Thy son is alive. And he asked them at what time he recovered. They said unto him, Yesterday at the seventh hour the fever left Joh_4:52   

33 him. And his father knew that that was at that hour in which Jesus said unto him, Joh_4:53   

34 Thy son is alive. And he believed, he and the whole people of his house. And this Joh_4:54   

35 is the second sign17 which Jesus did when he returned from Judaea to Galilee. And he was preaching in the synagogues of Galilee. Luk_4:44   

36 And he left Nazareth, and came and dwelt in Capernaum by the sea shore, in the Mat_4:13   

37 borders of Zebulun and Naphtali: that it might be fulfilled which was said in Isaiah the prophet, who said, Mat_4:14   

38 The land of Zebulun, the land of Naphtali, The way of the sea, the passage of the Jordan, Galilee of the nations: Mat_4:15   

39 The people sitting in darkness Saw a great light, And those sitting in the region and in the shadow of death, There appeared to them a light. Mat_4:16   

40 And he taught them on the sabbaths. And they wondered because of his doc- Luk_4:31 Luk_4:32   

41 trine:18 for his word was as if it were authoritative. And there was in the synagogue Luk_4:33   

42 a man with an unclean devil, and he cried out with a loud voice, and said, Let me alone; what have I to do with thee, thou Jesus of Nazareth? art thou come for our Luk_4:34   

43 destruction? I know thee who thou art, thou Holy One of God. And Jesus rebuked him, and said, Stop up thy mouth, and come out of him. And the demon threw him Luk_4:35   

44 Arabic p. 25 in the midst and came out of him, having done him no harm. And great amaze- ment took hold upon every man. And they talked one with another, and said, What is this word that orders the unclean spirits with power and Luk_4:36   

45 authority, and they come out? And the news of him spread abroad in all the region which was around them. Luk_4:37   

46 And when Jesus went out of the synagogue, he saw a man sitting among the publicans,19 named Matthew: and he said unto him, Come after me. And he rose, and followed him. Luk_4:38 Mat_9:9   

47,48 And Jesus came to the house of Simon and Andrew with James and John. And Simon’s wife’s mother was oppressed with a great fever, and they besought him for Mar_1:19 Luk_4:38   

49 her. And he stood over her and rebuked her fever, and it left her, and immediately Luk_4:39   

50 she rose and ministered to them. And at even they brought to him many that had Mat_8:16   

51 demons: and he cast out their devils with the20 word. And all that had sick, their diseases being divers and malignant, brought them unto him. And he laid his hand Luk_4:40   

52 on them one by one21 and healed them: that that might be fulfilled which was said Mat_8:17   

53 in the prophet Isaiah, who said, He taketh our pains and beareth our diseases. And Mar_1:33   

54 all the city was gathered together unto the door of Jesus. And he cast out devils also from many, as they were crying out and saying, Thou art the Messiah, the Son of God; and he rebuked them. And he suffered not the demons to speak, because they knew him that he was the Lord the Messiah. Luk_4:41  





1 The verb may be active as well as passive, but does not agree in gender with amazement. Mistakes in gender are, however, very common transcriptional errors.

2 Dual.

3 Plural. In the Peshitta it is two individuals in Luk_3:25. In Sin. the first is an individual and the second is ambiguous. In Cur. both are plural.

4 Or, he be given it.

5 The ordinary word for apostle.

6 See Section 9, 21.

7 So Ciasca’s printed text. The Vatican ms., however, probably represents a past tense.

8 cf. Peshitta.

9 cf. consonants of Syriac text.

10 Borgian ms., that God is truly, or, assuming a very common grammatical inaccuracy, that God is true or truth, the reading in Ibn-at-Tayyib’s Commentary.

11 Lit. saying.

12 Lit. the life of eternity; here and everywhere except Section 21, 40.

13 i.e., alighteth-and-stayeth

14 Or, knew.

15 Or, will.

16 Or, good news, and.

17 See Section 5, 32.

18 Perhaps we might here render learning; but see Section 28, 17.

19 So in the Arabic. It is, however, simply a misinterpretation of the expression in the Syriac versions for at the place of toll cf. Ibn-at-Tayyib’s Commentary.

20 cf. Section 1, 40.

21 Or, each.



Section VII.


1 Arabic p. 26 And in the morning of that day he went out very early, and went to a Mar_1:35   

2 desert place, and was there praying. And Simon and those that were with Mar_1:36   

3 him sought him. And when they found him, they said unto him, All the people seek for Mar_1:37   

4 thee. He said unto them, Let us go into the adjacent villages and towns, that I may Mar_1:38   

5 preach there also; for to this end did I come. And the multitudes were seeking him, and came till they reached him; and they took hold of him, that he should not Luk_4:42   

6 go away from them. But Jesus said unto them, I must preach of the kingdom of Luk_4:43   

7 God in other cities also: for because of this gospel was I sent. And Jesus was going about all the cities and the villages, and teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing all the diseases and all the sicknesses, Mat_9:35   

8 and casting out the devils. And his fame became known that1 he was teaching in Mar_1:39 Luk_4:14 Luk_4:15   

9 every place and being glorified by every man. And when he passed by, he saw Levi the son of Alphaeus sitting among the tax-gatherers;2 and he said unto him, Follow Mar_2:14   

10 me: and he rose and followed him. And the news of him was heard of in all the land of Syria: and they brought unto him all those whom grievous ills had befallen through divers diseases, and those that were enduring torment, and those that were possessed, and lunatics,3 and paralytics; and he healed them. Mat_4:24   

11, 12 And after some days Jesus entered into Capernaum again. And when they heard that he was in the house,4 many gathered, so that it could not hold them, even about Mar_2:1 Mar_2:2   

13 Arabic p. 27 the door; and he made known to them the word of God. And there were there some of the Pharisees and the teachers of the law, sitting, come from all the villages of Galilee, and Judaea, and Jerusalem; and the power of the Lord was Luk_5:17   

14 present to heal them. And some men brought a bed with a man on it who was para- Luk_5:18   

15 lytic. And they sought to bring him in and lay him before him. And when they found no way to bring him in because of the multitude of people, they went up to the roof, and let him down with his bed from the roofing,5into the midst before Jesus. Luk_5:19   

16 And when Jesus saw their faith, he said unto the paralytic, My son, thy sins are for- Luk_5:20   

17 given thee. And the scribes and Pharisees began to think within their hearts, Why doth this man blaspheme?6 Who is it that is able to forgive sins, but God alone? Luk_5:21   

18 And Jesus knew by the spirit that they were thinking this within themselves, and he Mar_2:8   

19 said unto them, Why do ye think this within your heart? Which is better,7 that it should be said to the paralytic, Thy sins are forgiven thee, or that it should be said Mar_2:9   

20 to him, Arise, and take thy bed, and walk? That ye may know that the Son of man Mar_2:10   

21 is empowered on earth to forgive sins (and he said to the paralytic), I say unto thee, Mar_2:11   

22 Arise, take thy bed, and go to thine house. And he rose forthwith, and took his bed, and went out in the presence of all. And he went to his house praising God. Mar_2:12 Luk_5:25   

23 And when those multitudes saw, they feared; and amazement took possession of Mat_9:8   

24 them, and they praised God, who had given such power to men. And they said, We have seen marvellous things to-day, of which we have never before seen the like. Luk_5:26 Mat_9:8 Luk_5:26 Mar_2:12   

25 Arabic p. 28 And after that, Jesus went out, and saw a publican, named Levi, sitting Luk_5:27   

26 among the publicans:8 and he said unto him, Follow me. And he left Luk_5:28   

27 everything, and rose, and followed him. And Levi made him a great feast in his house. And there was a great multitude of the publicans and others sitting with him. Luk_5:29   

28 And the scribes and Pharisees murmured, and said unto his disciples, Why do ye eat Luk_5:30   

29 and drink with the publicans and sinners? Jesus answered and said unto them, The physician seeketh not those who are well, but those that are afflicted with grievous Luk_5:31   

30, 31 sickness.9 I came not to call the righteous, but the sinners, to repentance. And they said unto him, Why do the disciples of John fast always, and pray, and the Luk_5:32 Luk_5:33   

32 Pharisees also, but thy disciples eat and drink? He said unto them, Ye cannot make Luk_5:34   

33 the sons of the marriage feast10 fast, while the bridegroom is with them. Days will come, when the bridegroom is taken away from them; then will they fast in those Luk_5:35   

34 days. And he spake unto them a parable: No man inserteth a new patch and seweth it in a worn garment, lest the newness of the new take from the worn, and Luk_5:36 Mar_2:21   

35 there occur a great rent. And no man putteth fresh wine into old skins, lest the wine burst the skins, and the skins be destroyed, and the wine spilled; but they put Mar_2:22   

36 the fresh wine in the new skins, and both are preserved. And no man drinketh old wine and straightway desireth fresh; for he saith, The old is better. Luk_5:38, Luk_5:39   

37 Arabic p. 29 And while Jesus was walking on the sabbath day among the sown fields, his disciples hungered. And they were rubbing the ears with their hands, and Mat_12:1   

38 eating. But some of the Pharisees, when they saw them, said unto him, See, Mat_12:2 Mar_2:24   

39 why11 do thy disciples on the sabbath day that which is not lawful? But Jesus said unto them, Have ye not read in olden time what David did, when he had need and Mar_2:25   

40 hungered, he and those that were with him? how he entered the house of God, when Abiathar was high priest, and ate the bread of the table of the Lord, which it was not lawful that any should eat, save the priests, and gave to them that were with him also? Mar_2:26   

41 And he said unto them, The sabbath was created because of man, and man was not Mar_2:27   

42 created because of the sabbath. Or have ye not read in the law, that the priests in Mat_12:5   

43 the temple profane the sabbath, and yet they are blameless? I say unto you now, Mat_12:6   

44 that here is what12 is greater than the temple. If ye had known this.13 I love mercy, Mat_12:7   

45 not sacrifice, ye would not have condemned14 those on whom is no blame. The Mat_12:8   

46 Lord of the sabbath is the Son of man. And his relatives heard, and went out to take him, and said, He hath gone out of his mind. Mar_3:21   

47 And on the next15 sabbath day he entered16 into the synagogue and was teach- Luk_6:6   

48 ing. And there was there a man whose right hand was withered. And the scribes and the Pharisees were watching him, whether he would heal on the sabbath day, Luk_6:7   

49 that they might find the means of accusing him. But he knew their thoughts, and said unto the man whose hand was withered, Rise and come near into the midst of Luk_6:8   

50 the synagogue. And when he came and stood, Jesus said unto them, I ask you, which is lawful to be done on the sabbath day, good or evil? shall lives be saved or Luk_6:9   

51 Arabic p. 30 destroyed? But they were silent. Regarding17 them with anger, being grieved because of the hardness of their hearts. And he said unto the man, Stretch out thy hand. And he stretched it out: and his hand became straight. Mar_3:4 Mar_3:5   

52 Then he said unto them, What man of you shall have one sheep, and if it fall into a Mat_12:11   

53 well on the sabbath day, will not take it and lift it out? And how much is man better than a sheep! Wherefore it is lawful on the sabbath to do good. Mat_12:12  





1 This may represent a Syriac

2 See note to Section 6, 46, which applies, although the Arabic words are different.

3 Lit. son-of-the-roofs, a Syriac expression cf. Section 24, 31.

4 This is the end of Luk_3:1 in the Greek.

5 This word may be either a singular or a plural

6 This word ordinarily means to forge lies against; but our translator uses it regularly as here.

7 Peshitta has easier.

8 See note to Section 6, 46.

9 A Syriacism.

10 The Arabic word which occurs here in many of the Arabic versions, could also be read bridegroom. The Syriac word for marriage chamber is also used in the sense of marriage feast.

11 Syr. In Arab. it means what?

12 This may be simply a misinterpretation of the ordinary Syriac reading, which in all probability agrees with the masculine reading found in the Text. Rec. of the Greek.

13 Is it possible that the Arabic word after known is not meant simply to introduce the quotation, but is to be taken in the adverbial sense, how representing the Syriac what that is?

14 See Section 10, 13.

15 Lit. other. The definite article is a mistake of the translator.

16 Here, at the end of leaf 17 of Vatican ms., is a note by a later hand: “Here a leaf is missing.” This first lacuna extends from Section 7, 47, to Section 8, 17.

17 An easy clerical error for And so he regarded cf. Peshitta.

The Diatessaron of Tatian (Cont.) ss 8-14

The Text of the Diatessaron. (Cont.)

Section VIII.


1 And the Pharisees went out, and consulted together concerning him, that they Mat_12:14   

2 might destroy him. And Jesus perceived, and removed thence: and great multitudes Mat_12:15   

3 followed him; and he healed all of them: and he forbade them that they should Mat_12:16   

4 not make him known:1 that the saying in Isaiah the prophet might be fulfilled, which said, Mat_12:17   

5 Behold, my servant2 with whom I am pleased; My beloved in whom my soul hath delighted:3 My spirit have I put upon him, And he shall proclaim to the nations judgement. Mat_12:18   

6 He shall not dispute, nor cry out; And no man shall hear his voice in the marketplace. Mat_12:19   

7 And a bruised reed shall he not break, And a smoking lamp4 shall he not extinguish, Until he shall bring forth judgement unto victory. Mat_12:20   

8 And the nations shall rejoice in his name.5 Mat_12:21   

9 And in those days Jesus went out to the mountain that he might pray, and he Luk_6:12   

10 spent the night6 there in prayer to God. And when the morning was come, he called the disciples. And he went towards the sea: and there followed him much people Luk_6:13 Mar_3:7   

11 from Galilee that he might pray,7 and from Judaea, and from Jerusalem, and from Idumaea, and from beyond Jordan, and from Tyre, and from Sidon, and from De- Mar_3:8   

12 capolis; and great multitudes came unto him, which had heard what he did. And he spake to his disciples to bring him the boat because of the multitudes, that they Mar_3:9   

13 Arabic p. 31 might not throng him. And he healed many, so that they were almost falling on him8 on account of their seeking to get near him. And9 those that had Mar_3:10   

14 plagues and unclean spirits, as soon as they beheld him, would fall, and Mar_3:11   

15 cry out, and say, Thou art the Son of God. And he rebuked them much, that they Mar_3:12   

16 should not make him known. And those that were under the constraint of10 un- Luk_6:18   

17 clean spirits were healed. And all of the crowd were seeking to come near11 him; because power went out from him, and he healed them all. Luk_6:19   

18, 19 And when Jesus saw the multitudes, he went up to the mountain. And he called his disciples, and chose from them twelve; and they are those whom he named Mat_5:1 Luk_6:13   

20 apostles: Simon, whom he named Cephas, and Andrew his brother, and James and Luk_6:14   

21 John, and Philip and Bartholomew, and Matthew and Thomas, and James the son Luk_6:15   

22 of Alphaeus, and Simon which was called the Zealot, and Judas the son of James, Luk_6:16   

23 and Judas the Iscariot, being he that had betrayed him.12 And Jesus went down with them and stood in the plain, and the company of his disciples, and the great Luk_6:17   

24 multitude of people. And these twelve he chose to be with him, and that he might Mar_3:14   

25 send them to preach, and to have power to heal the sick and to cast out devils. Luk_6:20 Mat_5:2   

26 Then he lifted up his eyes unto them, and opened his mouth, and taught them, and said, Mat_5:3   

27 Blessed are the poor in spirit: for the kingdom of heaven is theirs. Mat_5:4   

28 Blessed are the sorrowful: for they shall be comforted. Mat_5:5   

29 Blessed are the humble: for they shall inherit the earth. Mat_5:6   

30 Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be satisfied. Mat_5:7   

31 Blessed are the merciful: for on them shall be mercy. Mat_5:8   

32 Arabic p. 32 Blessed are the pure in their hearts: for they shall see God. Mat_5:9   

33 Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the sons of God. Mat_5:10   

34 Blessed are they that were persecuted13 for righteousness’ sake: for the kingdom of heaven is theirs. Luk_6:22   

35 Blessed are ye when men shall hate you, and separate you from them, and persecute you, and reproach you, and shall speak against you with all evil talk, for my Mat_5:11   

36 sake, falsely. Then rejoice and be glad, for your reward is great in heaven: for so persecuted they the prophets before you. Mat_5:12   

37 But woe unto you rich! for ye hive received your consolation. Luk_6:24   

38 Woe unto you that are satisfied! ye shall hunger. Woe unto you that laugh now! ye shall weep and be sad. Luk_6:25   

39 Woe unto you when men praise you! for so did their fathers use to do to the false prophets. Luk_5:26   

40 Unto you do I say, ye which hear, Ye are the salt of the earth: if then the salt become tasteless, wherewith shall it be salted? For any purpose it is of no use, but Luk_6:27 Mat_5:13   

41 is thrown outside, and men tread upon it. Ye are the light of the world. It is Mat_5:14   

42 impossible that a city built on a mountain should be hid. Neither do they light a lamp and place it under a bushel, but on the lamp-stand, and it giveth light to all Mat_5:15   

43 who are in the house. So shall14 your light shine before men, that they may see Mat_5:16   

44 your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven. There is nothing Mar_4:22   

45 secret that shall not be revealed, or hidden that shall not be known. Whoever hath ears that hear, let him hear. Mar_4:23   

46 Think not that I came to destroy the law or the prophets; I came not to destroy, Mat_5:17   

47 Arabic p. 33 but to complete. Verily I say unto you, Until heaven and earth shall pass, there shall not pass one point or one letter of the law, until all of it shall be Mat_5:18   

48 accomplished. Every one who shall violate now one of these small commandments, and shall teach men so, shall be called lacking in the kingdom of heaven: every one that shall do and teach shall15 be called great in the kingdom Mat_5:19   

49 of heaven. I say unto you now, unless your righteousness abound more than that of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall not enter the kingdom of heaven. Mat_5:20   

50 Ye have heard that it was said to the ancients, Do not kill; and every one that Mat_5:21   

51 killeth is worthy of the judgement. But I say unto you that every one who is angry with his brother without a cause is worthy of the judgement; and every one that saith to his brother, Thou foul one, is condemned16 by the synagogue; and whoso- Mat_5:22   

52 ever saith to him, Thou fool, is worthy of the fire of Gehenna. If thou art now offering thy gift at the altar, and rememberest there that thy brother hath conceived Mat_5:23   

53 against thee any grudge, leave thy gift at the altar, and go first and satisfy thy Mat_5:24   

54 brother, and then return and offer thy gift. Join17 thine adversary quickly, and while thou art still with him in the way, give a ransom and free thyself from him; Mat_5:25 Luk_12:58   

55 test thine adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the tax- Mat_5:25   

56 collector, and thou fall into prison. And verily I say unto thee, Thou shall not go out thence until thou payest the last farthing. Mat_5:26   

57, 58 Ye have heard that it was said, Do not commit adultery: but I now say unto you, that every one that looketh at a woman lusting after her hath forthwith already Mat_5:27 Mat_5:28   

59 Arabic p. 34 committed adultery with her in his heart. If thy right eye injure thee, put it out and cast it from thee; for it is preferable for thee that one of thy Mat_5:29   

60 members should perish, and not thy whole body go into the fire of hell. And if thy right hand injure thee, cut it off and cast it from thee; and it is better for thee that Mat_5:30   

61 one of thy members should perish, and not thy whole body fall into Gehenna. It was said that he that putteth away his wife should give her a writing of divorcement: Mat_5:31   

62 but I say unto you, that every one that putteth away his wife, except for the cause of adultery, hath made it lawful for18 her to commit adultery: and whosoever taketh one that is put away committeth adultery. Mat_5:32  





1 Lit. lead to him.

2 The Arabic word strictly means young man.

3 Or, rested.

4 Or, wick.

5 The Arab. might also mean, And he shall preach the good tidings to the peoples in his name cf. Section 22, 4712.

6 This phrase, in this case adopted from the Syriac, really means, in Arab., morning found him.

7 It must be remembered that we have here only one ms. The Arabic words for Galilee and for mountain are very similar. The words that he might pray have therefore probably made their way here by some error from Section 8, 9, above.

8 So with the Peshitta by transposing two letters. The Arabic text as it stands can hardly be translated. Almost may be simply a corruption of the Arabic word were.

9 The syntax of the Arabic is ambiguous. The alternative followed above, which seems the most natural, is that which agrees most nearly with the Peshitta.

10 Or, troubled with.

11 This is the meaning of the Arabic word, as it is the primary meaning of the Syria; but in this work a number of words meaning approach are used and generally translated in the sense of touch. The commonest word so used is that in Section 12, 13 cf. also Section 12, 35.

12 So Vatican ms., followed by Ciasca cf. Sin.. Borgian ms. has he that was betraying or was a traitor cf. Peshitta.

13 This word, the ordinary meaning of which is expel, is freely used by our translator in the sense of persecute.

14 Or, let cf. Section 4, 207.

15 Lit. this man shall.

16 See Section 10, 133.

17 The text is rather uncertain.

18 The text is probably corrupt. Vat. ms. has on margin, i.e., caused her.



Section IX.


1 Ye have heard also that it was said unto the ancients, Lie not, but perform unto Mat_5:33   

2 God in thy oaths: but I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by heaven, for it Mat_5:34   

3 is God’s throne; nor by the earth, for it is a footstool under his feet; nor yet by Mat_5:35   

4 Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great1 King. Neither shalt thou swear by thy Mat_5:36   

5 head, for thou canst not make in it one lock of hair black or white. But your word shall be either Yea or Nay, and what is in excess of this is of the evil one. Mat_5:37   

6, 7 Ye have heard that it was said, Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth: but I say unto you, Stand not in opposition to the evil;2 but whosoever smiteth thee on thy right Mat_5:38 Mat_5:39   

8 cheek,3 turn to him also the other. And he that would sue thee, and take thy tunic, Mat_5:40   

9 leave to him also thy wrapper. And whosoever compelleth thee one mite, go with Mat_5:41   

10 Arabic p. 35 him twain. And he that asketh thee, give unto him: and he that would borrow of thee, prevent him not. And prosecute4 not him that taketh thy Mat_5:42 Luk_6:30   

11 substance. And as ye desire that men should do to you, so do ye also to them. Luk_6:31   

12, 13 Ye have heard that it was said, Love thy neighbour and hate thine enemy: but I say unto you, Love your enemies, and pray for those that curse you, and deal well with those that hate you, and pray for those who take you with violence and per- Mat_5:43 Mat_5:44   

14 secute you; that ye may be sons of your heavenly Father, who maketh his sun to rise on the good and the evil, and sendeth down his rain on the righteous and the Mat_5:45   

15 unrighteous. If ye love them that love you, what reward shall ye have? for the pub- Mat_5:46 Luk_6:32   

16 licans and sinners also love those that love them. And if ye do a kindness to those Luk_6:33   

17 who treat you well, where is your superiority? for sinners also do likewise. And if ye lend to him of whom ye hope for a reward,5 where is your superiority? for the Luk_6:34   

18 sinners also lend to sinners, seeking recompense from6 them. But love your enemies, and do good to them, and lend, and cut not off the hope of any man; that your reward may be great, and ye may be the children of the Highest: for he is lenient Luk_6:35   

19 towards the wicked and the ungrateful. Be ye merciful, even as your Father also is Luk_6:36   

20 merciful. And if ye inquire for the good of your brethren only, what more have Mat_5:47   

21 ye done than others? is not this the conduct of the publicans also? Be ye now7 perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect. Mat_5:48   

22 Consider your alms; do them not before men to let them see you: and if it be not Mat_6:1   

23 Arabic p. 36 so,8 ye have no reward before your Father which is in the heavens. When then thou givest an alms now, do not sound a trumpet before thee, as do the people of hypocrisy, in the synagogues and the marketplaces, that men may praise them. And Mat_6:2   

24 verily say I unto you, They have received their reward. But thou, when Mat_6:3   

25 thou doest alms, let thy left hand not know what thy right hand doeth; that thine alms may be concealed: and thy Father which seeth in secret shall reward thee openly. Mat_6:4   

26 And whenever thou prayest, be not as the hypocrites, who love to stand in the synagogues and in the corners of the marketplaces for prayers, that men may be- Mat_6:5   

27 hold them. And verily say I unto you, They have received their reward. But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy closet, and fasten thy door, and pray to thy Father in secret, and thy Father which seeth in secret shall reward thee openly. Mat_6:6   

28 And whenever ye pray, be not babblers, as the heathen; for they think that by the Mat_6:7   

29 abundance of their words they shall be heard. Then be not ye now like unto them: Mat_6:8   

30 for your Father knoweth your request before ye ask him. One of his disciples said Luk_11:1   

31 unto him, Our Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples. Jesus said unto Luk_11:2   

32 them, Thus now pray ye now:9 Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy Mat_6:9   

33, 34 name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done,10 as in heaven, so on earth. Give us the Mat_6:10 Mat_6:11   

35 food of to-day. And forgive, us our trespasses, as we forgave those that trespassed Mat_6:12   

36 against us. And bring us not into temptations, but deliver us from the evil one. For Mat_6:13   

37 Arabic p. 37 thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever and ever.11 If ye forgive men their wrong-doing,12 your Father which is in heaven will forgive you. Mat_6:14   

38 But if ye forgive not men, neither will your Father pardon your wrong-doing. Mat_6:15   

39 When ye fast, do not frown, as the hypocrites; for they make their faces austere, that they may be seen of13 men that they are fasting. Verily I say unto you, They Mat_6:16   

40 have received their reward. But when thou fastest, wash thy face and anoint thy Mat_6:17   

41 head; that thou make not an appearance to men of fasting, but to thy Father which is in secret: and thy Father which seeth in secret shall reward thee. Mat_6:18   

42 Be not agitated, little flock; for your Father hath delighted to give you the king- Luk_12:32   

43 dom. Sell your possessions, and give in alms; take to yourselves purses that wax Luk_12:33   

44 not old. Lay not up treasure on earth, where moth and worm corrupt, and where Mat_6:19   

45 thieves break through and steal: but lay up for yourselves treasure in heaven, where Mat_6:20   

46 moth and worm do not corrupt, nor thieves break through nor steal: for where your Mat_6:21   

47 treasure is, there also will your heart be. The lamp of the body is the eye: if then14 Mat_6:22   

48 thine eye now be sound, thy whole body also shall be light. But if thine eye be evil, all thy body shall be dark. And if the light which is in thee is darkness, how Mat_6:23   

49 great is15 thy darkness! Be watchful that the light which is in thee be not darkness. Luk_11:35   

50 Because that, if thy whole body is light, and have no part dark, it shall all be light, as the lamp giveth light to thee with its flame. Luk_11:36  





1 The adj. is in the superlative.

2 A literal reproduction of the Greek, like that in Syr.. versions.

3 Lit. jaw.

4 Or, punish.

5 Or, return.

6 Or, to be given back as much by.

7 Our translator is continually using this word cf. Section 9, 23 where the context and the originals require then or therefore. We shall only occasionally reproduce the peculiarity.

8 A clumsy phrase.

9 The Arabic text makes Matthew begin here.

10 The text as printed reads, That thy will may be done; but it is to be explained as a very common grammatical transcriptional error. The Cur., however, has and.

11 Lit. unto the age of the ages.

12 Or, folly; and so in following verse.

13 Or, shew to.

14 Or, for if

15 Or, will be.



Section X.


1 Arabic p. 38 No man can serve two masters; and that because it is necessary that he hate one of them and love the other, and honour one of them and despise the Mat_6:24   

2 other. Ye cannot serve God and possessions. And because of this I say unto you, Be not anxious for yourselves,1 what ye shall eat and what ye shall drink; neither for your bodies, what ye shall put on. Is not the life better than the food, and the body Mat_6:25   

3 than the raiment? Consider the birds of the heaven, which sow not, nor reap, nor store in barns; and yet your Father which is in heaven feedeth them. Are not ye Mat_6:26   

4 better than they? Who of you when he trieth is able to add to his stature one Mat_6:27   

5 cubit? If then ye are not able for a small thing, why are ye anxious about the Luk_12:26   

6, 7 rest? Consider the wild lily, how it grows, although it toils not, nor spins; and I say unto you that Solomon in the greatness of his glory was not clothed like one of Mat_6:28 Mat_6:29   

8 them. And if God so clothe the grass of the field, which to-day is, and to-morrow Mat_6:30   

9 is cast2 into the oven, how much more shall be unto you, O ye of little faith! Be not anxious, so as to say, What shall we eat? or, What shall we drink? or, With Mat_6:31   

10 what shall we be clothed? Neither let your minds be perplexed in this: all these things the nations of the world seek; and your Father which is in heaven knoweth Luk_12:29 Mat_6:32   

11 your need of all these things. Seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteous- Mat_6:33   

12 Arabic p. 39 ness; and all these shall come to you as something additional for you. Be not anxious for the morrow; for the morrow shall be anxious for what belongs to it. Sufficient unto the day is its evil. Mat_6:34   

13 Judge not, that ye be not judged: condemn3 not, that ye be not condemned: Mat_7:1 Luk_6:37   

14 forgive, and it shall be forgiven you: release, and ye shall be released: give, that ye may be given unto; with good measure, abundant, full, they shall thrust4 into your Luk_6:38   

15 bosoms. With what measure ye measure it shall be measured to you. See to it what ye hear: with what measure ye measure it shall be measured to you; and ye Mar_4:24   

16 shall be given more. I say unto those that hear, He that hath shall be given unto; and he that hath not, that which he regards5 as his shall be taken from him. Mar_4:25   

17 And he spake unto them a parable, Can a blind man haply guide a blind man? Luk_6:39   

18 shall6 they not both fall into a hollow? A disciple is not better than his master; Luk_6:40   

19 every perfect man shall be as his master. Why lookest thou at the mote which is in the eye of thy brother, but considerest not the column that is in thine own eye? Luk_6:41   

20 Or how canst thou say to thy brother, Brother, I will take out the mote from thine eye; and the column which is in thine eye thou seest not? Thou hypocrite, take out first the column from thine eye; and then shalt thou see to take out the mote from the eye of thy brother. Luk_6:42   

21 Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast your pearls before the swine, lest they trample them with their feet, and return and wound you. Mat_7:6   

22 And he said unto them, Who of you, that hath a friend, goeth to him at mid- Luk_11:5   

23 night, and saith unto him, My friend, lend me three loaves; for a friend hath come Luk_11:6   

24 Arabic p. 40 to me from a journey, and I have nothing to offer to him: and that friend shall answer him from within, and say unto him, Trouble me not; for the door is shut, and my children are with me in bed, and I cannot rise and give thee? Luk_11:7   

25 And verily I say unto you, If he will not give him because of friendship, yet because Luk_11:8   

26 of his importunity he will rise and give him what he seeketh. And I also say unto you, Ask, and ye shall be given unto; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be Luk_11:9   

27 opened unto you. Every one that asketh receiveth, and he that seeketh findeth, and Luk_11:10   

28 he that knocketh, it shall be opened to him. What father of you, shall his son ask for bread – will he, think you, give him a stone?7 and if he ask of him a fish, will he, Luk_11:11   

29 think you, instead of the fish give him a serpent? and if he ask him for an egg, will Luk_11:12   

30 he, think you, extend to him a scorpion? If ye then, although being evil, know the gifts which are good, and give them to your children, how much more shall your Luk_11:23   

31 Father which is in heaven give the Holy Spirit to them that ask him? Whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them: this is the law and the prophets. Mat_7:12   

32 Enter8 ye by the narrow gate; for the wide gate and the broad way lead to de- Mat_7:13   

33 struction, and many they be which go therein. How narrow is the gate and straitened the way leading to life! and few be they that find it. Mat_7:14   

34 Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep’s9 clothing, while within Mat_7:15   

35 they are ravening wolves. But by their fruits ye shall know them. For every tree is known by its fruit. For figs are not gathered10 of thorns, neither are grapes plucked of Mat_7:16 Luk_6:44   

36 briers. Even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit, but the evil tree bringeth Mat_7:17   

37 Arabic p. 41 forth evil fruit. The good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can the Mat_7:18   

38 evil tree bring forth good fruit. The good man from the good treasures that are in his heart bringeth forth good things; and the evil man from the evil treasures that are in his heart bringeth forth evil things: and from the overflowings of the Luk_6:45   

39 heart the lips speak. Every tree that beareth not good fruit is cut down and cast Mat_7:19   

40, 41 into the fire. Therefore by their fruits ye shall know them. Not all that say unto me, My Lord, my Lord, shall enter the kingdom of the heavens; but he that doeth Mat_7:20 Mat_7:21   

42 the will of my Father which is in heaven. Many shall say unto me in that day, My Lord, my Lord, did we not prophesy in thy name, and in thy name cast out Mat_7:22   

43 devils, and in thy name do many powers? Then shall I say unto them, I never Mat_7:23   

44 knew you: depart from me, ye servants of iniquity. Every man that cometh unto Luk_6:47   

45 me, and heareth my sayings, and doeth them, I will shew you to what he is like: he is like the wise man which built a house, and digged and went deep, and laid the Luk_6:48   

46 foundations on a rock: and the rain came down, and the rivers overflowed, and the winds blew, and shook that house, and it fell not: for its foundation was laid on Mat_7:25   

47 rocks. And every one that heareth these my words, and doeth them not, is like Mat_7:26   

48 the foolish man which built his house on sand, without foundation: and the rain descended, and the rivers overflowed, and the winds blew, and smote upon that house, and it fell: and the fall of it was great. Mat_7:27  





1 Or, your souls or, your lives.

2 Lit. falleth cf. Syriac.

3 The word means to contend successfully, but is used throughout by our translator in the sense of condemn.

4 This is the reading adopted by Ciasca in his Latin version. The diacritical points in the Arabic text, as he has printed it perhaps a misprint, give second person plural passive instead of third plural active.

5 cf. Luk_8:18. Our translator uses the same word in Section 50, 5 = Luk_23:8, and in both cases it represents the same word in the Syriac versions.

6 Or, Do.

7 The Arabic might also be rendered, What father of you, whom his son asketh for bread, will think you give him a stone? But as the Peshitta preserves the confused construction of the Greek, it is probably better to render as above.

8 There is nothing about striving. The verb is walaga, which means enter cf. Section 11, 48.

9 Or, lambs’

10 The verbs might be singular active, but not plural as in Syriac versions cf., however, Section 38, 438. In the Borgian ms the nouns are in the accusative.



Section XI.


1 Arabic p. 42 And when Jesus finished these sayings, the multitudes were astonished Mat_7:28   

2 at his teaching; and that because he was teaching them as one having authority, not as their scribes and the Pharisees. Mat_7:29   

3 And when he descended from the mountain, great multitudes followed him. Mat_8:1   

4 And when Jesus entered Capernaum, the servant of one of the chiefs was in an Mat_8:5 Luk_7:2   

5 evil case, and he was precious to him, and he was at the point of death. And he Luk_7:3   

6 heard of Jesus, and came to him with the elders of the Jews; and he besought him, and said, My Lord, my boy is laid in the house paralysed,1 and he is suffering griev- Mat_8:5 Mat_8:6   

7 ous torment. And the elders urgently requested of him, and said, He is worthy that Luk_7:4   

8 this should be done unto him: for he loveth our people, and he also built the syna- Luk_7:5   

9, 10 gogue for us. Jesus said unto him, I will come and heal him. That chief answered and said, My Lord, I am not worthy that my roof should shade thee; but it sufficeth Mat_8:7 Mat_8:8   

11 that thou speak a word, and my lad shall be healed. And I also am a man in obedience to authority, having under my hand soldiers:2 and I say to this one, Go, and he goeth; and to another, Come, and he cometh; and to my servant that he do this, Luk_7:8   

12 and he doeth it. And when Jesus heard that, he marvelled at him,3 and turned and said unto the multitude that were coming with him, Verily I say unto you, I have Luk_7:9 Mat_8:10   

13 not found in Israel the like of this faith. I say unto you, that many shall come from the east and the west, and shall recline with Abraham and Isaac and Jacob Mat_8:11   

14 Arabic p. 43 in the kingdom of heaven: but the children of the kingdom shall be cast Mat_8:12   

15 forth into the outer darkness: and there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. And Jesus said to that chief, Go thy way; as thou hast believed, so shall it be unto thee. Mat_8:13   

16 And his lad was healed in that hour. And that chief returned to the house and found that sick servant healed. Luk_7:10   

17 And the day after, he was going to a city called Nain, and his disciples with him, Luk_7:11   

18 and a great multitude. And when he was come near the gate of the city, he saw a crowd4 accompanying one that was dead, the only son of his mother; and his mother was a widow: and there was with her a great multitude of the people of the Luk_7:12   

19 city. And when Jesus saw her, he had compassion on her, and said unto her, Weep Luk_7:13   

20 not. And he went and advanced to the bier, and the bearers of it stood still; and Luk_7:14   

21 he said, Young man, I say unto thee, Arise. And that dead man sat up and began Luk_7:15   

22 to speak; and he gave him to his mother. And fear came on all the people: and they praised God, and said, There hath risen among us a great prophet: and, God Luk_7:16   

23 hath had regard to his people. And this news concerning him spread in all Judaea, and in all the region which was about them. Luk_7:17   

24 And when Jesus saw great multitudes surrounding him, he commanded them to Mat_8:18   

25 depart to the other side. And while they were going in the way, there came one of the scribes and said unto him, My Master, I will follow thee whithersoever thou Luk_9:57 Mat_8:19   

26 goest. Jesus said unto him, The foxes have holes, and the birds of the heaven have Mat_8:20   

27 nests; but the Son of man hath not a place in which to lay his head. And he said unto another, Follow me. And he said unto him, My Lord, suffer me first to go and Luk_9:59   

28 bury my father. Jesus said unto him, Leave the dead to bury their dead; but thou, Luk_9:60   

29 follow me and preach the kingdom of God. And another said unto him, I will follow thee, my Lord; but first suffer me to go and salute my household and Luk_9:61   

30 Arabic p. 44 come. Jesus said unto him, There is no one who putteth his hand to the plough5 and looketh behind him, and yet is fit for the kingdom of God. Luk_9:62   

31 And he said to them on that day in the evening, Let us go over to the other side Mar_4:35 Luk_8:22   

32 of the lake; and he left6 the multitudes. And Jesus went up and sat in the ship, Mar_4:36 Luk_8:22   

33 he and his disciples, and there were with them other ships. And there occurred on the sea a great tempest7 of whirlwind and wind, and the ship was on the point of Mar_4:36 Mat_8:24 Luk_8:23   

34 sinking from the greatness8 of the waves. But Jesus was sleeping on a cushion in the stern of the ship; and his disciples came and awoke him, and said unto him, Our Mar_4:38 Mat_8:25   

35 Lord, save us; lo, we perish. And he rose, and rebuked the winds and the turbulence of the water, and said to the sea, Be still, for thou art rebuked; and the wind Luk_8:24 Mar_4:39   

36 was still, and there was a great calm. And he said unto them, Why are ye thus Mar_4:40   

37 afraid? And why have ye no faith? And they feared greatly.9 And they marvelled, and said one to another, Who, think you, is this, who commandeth also the wind and the waves and the sea, and they obey him? Luk_8:25   

38 And they departed and came to the country of the Gadarenes, which is on the Luk_8:26   

39 other side, opposite the land of Galilee. And when he went out of the ship to the land, there met him from among the tombs a man who had a devil for a long time, Luk_8:27 Mar_5:2 Luk_8:27   

40 Arabic p. 45 and wore no clothes, neither dwelt in a house, but among the tombs. And no man was able to bind him with chains, because any time that he was bound with chains Mar_5:3 Mar_5:4   

41 and fetters he cut the chains and loosened the fetters; and he was snatched10 Luk_8:29   

42 away of the devil into the desert, and no man was able to quiet him; and at all times, in the night and in the day, he would be among the tombs and in the mountains; and no man was able to pass by that way; and he would cry out and wound himself Mar_5:4, Mar_5:5 Mat_8:28 Mar_5:5   

43 with stones. And when he saw Jesus at a distance, he hastened and worshipped Mar_5:6   

44 him, and cried with a loud voice and said, What have we to do with thee, Jesus, Mar_5:7 Luk_8:28   

45 Son of the most high God? I adjure thee by God, torment me not. And Jesus commanded the unclean spirit to come out of the man: and he had suffered11 a long Mar_5:7 Luk_8:29   

46 time since the time when he came into captivity to it. And Jesus asked him, What is thy name? He said unto him, Legion; for there had entered into him many Luk_8:30   

47 devils. And they besought him that he would not command them to depart into Luk_8:31   

48 the depths. And there was there a herd of many swine, feeding in the mountain, and those devils besought him to give them leave to enter the swine; and he gave Luk_8:32   

49 them leave. And the devils went out of the man and entered into the swine. And that herd hastened to the summit and fell down into the midst of the sea, about two Luk_8:33 Mar_5:13   

50 thousand, and they were choked in the water. And when the keepers saw what Luk_8:34   

51 happened, they fled, and told those in the cities and villages. And the people went out to see what had happened; and they came to Jesus, and found the man whose devils had gone out, clothed, modest,12 seated at the feet of Jesus; and they Luk_8:35   

52 Arabic p. 46 feared. And they reported what they saw, and how the man was healed who had a devil, and concerning those swine also. Luk_8:36 Mar_5:16  





1 i.e. so as to be unable to walk.

2 Or, bodies of soldiers.

3 Or, it.

4 Lit. company

5 Lit. plough of the yoke.

6 cf. e.g., at Section 17, 19, Section 23, 16, where the same Arabic and Syriac word is used; cf. also the ambiguity of the Greek R. V. has left

7 Lit. commotion

8 Or, abundance.

9 The last clause belongs in the Greek to Luk_23:41.

10 Imperfect tense.

11 Lit. and it was for him.

12 cf. Syriac versions.



Section XII.


1 And all the multitude of the Gadarenes entreated him to depart from them, because that great fear took hold upon them. Luk_8:37   

2, 3 But Jesus went up into the ship, and crossed, and came to his city. And that man from whom the devils went out entreated that he might stay with him; but Mat_9:1 Luk_8:38   

4 Jesus sent him away, and said unto him, Return to thy house, and make known what Luk_8:39   

5 God hath done for thee. And he went, and began to publish in Decapolis1 what Jesus had done for him; and they all marvelled. Mar_5:20   

6 And when Jesus had crossed in the ship to that side, a great multitude received Mar_5:21 Luk_8:40   

7 him; and they were all looking for him. And a man named Jairus, the chief of the Luk_8:41   

8 synagogue, fell before the feet of Jesus, and besought him much, and said unto him, I have an only daughter, and she is come nigh unto death; but come and lay thy Mar_5:23 Mat_9:18   

9 hand upon her, and she shall live. And Jesus rose, and his disciples, and they fol- Mat_9:19   

10 lowed him. And there joined him a great multitude, and they pressed him. Mar_5:24   

11, 12 And a woman, which had a flow of blood for twelve years, had suffered much of many physicians, and spent all that she had, and was not benefited at all, but her Mar_5:25 Mar_5:26   

13 trouble increased further. And when she heard of Jesus, she came in the thronging of Mar_5:27   

14 Arabic p. 47 the crowd behind him, and touched2 his garments; and she thought within Mar_5:28   

15 herself, If I could reach to touch his garments, I should live. And immediately the fountain of her blood was dried; and she felt in her body that she was healed Mar_5:29   

16 of her plague. And Jesus straightway knew within himself that power had gone out of him; and he turned to the crowd, and said, Who approached unto my garments? Mar_5:30   

17 And on their denying, all of them, Simon Cephas and those with him said unto him, Our Master, the multitudes throng thee and press thee, and sayest thou, Who ap- Luk_8:45   

18 proached unto me? And he said, Some one approached unto me; and I knew that Luk_8:46   

19 power went forth from me. And that woman, when she saw that she was not hid Luk_8:47   

20 from him, came fearing and agitated for she knew what had happened to her, and fell down and worshipped him, and told, in the presence of all the people, for what Mar_5:33 Luk_8:47   

21 reason she touched him, and how she was healed immediately. And Jesus said unto her, Be of good courage, daughter; thy faith hath made thee alive; depart in peace, and be whole from thy plague. Luk_8:48 Mar_5:34   

22 And while he was yet speaking, there came a man from the house of the chief of the synagogue, and said unto him, Thy daughter hath died; so trouble not the Luk_8:49   

23 teacher. But Jesus heard, and said unto the father of the maid, Fear not: but be- Luk_8:50   

24 lieve only, and she shall live. And he suffered no man to go with him, except Mar_5:37   

25 Simon Cephas, and James, and John the brother of James. And they reached the house of the chief of the synagogue; and he saw them agitated, weeping and wail- Mar_5:38   

26 ing. And he entered, and said unto them, Why are ye agitated and weeping? the Mar_5:39   

27 Arabic p. 48 maid hath not died, but she is sleeping. And they laughed at him, for Luk_8:53   

28 they knew that she had died. And he put every man forth without, and took the father of the maid, and her mother, and Simon, and James, and John, and Mar_5:40   

29 entered into the place where the maid was laid. And he took hold of the hand of the maid, and said unto her, Maid, arise. And her spirit returned, and straightway Mar_5:41 Luk_8:55   

30 she arose and walked: and she was about twelve years of age. And he commanded Mar_5:42 Luk_8:55   

31 that there should be given to her something to eat. And her father wondered greatly: Luk_8:56   

32 and he warned them that they should tell no man what had happened. And this report spread in all that land. Mat_9:26   

33 And when Jesus crossed over from there, there joined him two blind men, cry- Mat_9:27   

34 ing out, and saying, Have mercy on us, thou son of David. And when he came to the house, those two blind men came to him: and Jesus said unto them, Believe ye Mat_9:28   

35 that I am able to do this? They said unto him, Yea, our Lord. Then he touched3 Mat_9:29   

36 their eyes, and said, As ye have believed, it shall be unto you. And immediately their eyes were opened. And Jesus forbade them, and said, See that no man know. Mat_9:30   

37 But they went out and published the news in all that land. Mat_9:31   

38 And when Jesus went out, they brought to him a dumb man having a devil. Mat_9:32   

39 And on the going out of the devil that dumb man spake. And the multitudes marvelled, and said, It was never so seen in Israel Mat_9:33   

40 And Jesus was going about in all the cities and in the villages, and teaching in their synagogues, and proclaiming the good news of the kingdom, and healing every disease Mat_9:35   

41 Arabic p. 49 and sickness; and many followed him. And when Jesus saw the multitudes, he had compassion on them, for they were wearied and scattered,4 as sheep Mat_9:36   

42 that have no shepherd. And he called his twelve disciples, and gave them power and Mat_10:1 Luk_9:1   

43 much authority over all devils and diseases; and sent them two and two, that they Luk_9:2   

44 might proclaim the kingdom of God, and to heal the sick. And he charged them, and said, Walk not in the way of the heathen, nor enter into the cities of the Sa- Mat_10:5   

45, 46 maritans.5 Go especially unto the sheep that are lost of the sons of Israel. And Mat_10:6 Mat_10:7   

47 when ye go, proclaim and say, The kingdom of heaven is come near. And heal the sick, and cleanse the lepers, and cast out the devils: freely ye have received, freely Mat_10:8   

48, 49 give. Get you not gold, nor silver, nor brass in your purses; and take nothing for the way, except a staff only; nor bag, nor bread; neither shall ye have two tunics, Mat_10:9 Mar_6:8 Luk_9:3   

50 nor shoes, nor staff, but be shod with sandals; for the labourer is worthy of his food. Mat_10:10   

51 And whatever city or village ye enter, inquire who is worthy in it, and there be until Mar_6:9 Mat_10:10   

52, 53 ye go out. And when ye enter into the house, ask for the peace of the house: and if the house is worthy, your peace shall come upon it; but if it is not worthy, your Mat_10:11 Mat_10:12 Mat_10:13   

54 peace shall return unto you. And whosoever shall not receive you, nor hear your sayings, when ye go out from that house, or from that village, shake off the dust Mat_10:14 Mar_6:11   

55 Arabic p. 50 that is under your feet against them for a testimony. And verily I say unto you, To the land of Sodom and Gomorrah there shall be rest in the day of judgement, rather than to that city. Mat_10:15  





1 Lit. the ten cities.

2 See Section 8, 1711.

3 Lit. went forward to cf. Section 8, 1711.

4 Lit. cast away cf. meanings of Syriac word.

5 Section 34, 40, shows that this Arabic form may be so translated.



Section XIII.


1 I am sending you as lambs among wolves: be ye now wise as serpents, and Mat_10:16   

2 harmless1 as doves. Beware of men: they shall deliver you to the councils of the Mat_10:17   

3 magistrates, and scourge you in their synagogues; and shall bring you before governors and kings for my sake, for a testimony against them and against the nations. Mat_10:18   

4 And when they deliver you up, be not 2 anxious, nor consider beforehand, what ye Mat_10:19   

5 shall say; but ye shall be given3 in that hour what ye ought to speak. Ye do not Mat_10:20   

6 speak, but the Spirit of your Father speaketh in you. The brother shall deliver up his brother to death, and the father his son; and the sons shall rise against their Mat_10:21   

7 parents, and put them to death. And ye shall be hated of every man because of Mat_10:22   

8 my name; but he that endureth unto the end of the matter shall be saved.4 When they expel you from this city, flee to another. Verily I say unto you, Ye shall not finish all the cities of the people of Israel, until the Son of man come. Mat_10:23   

9, 10 A disciple is not superior to his lord, nor a servant to his master. For it is enough then for the disciple that he be as his lord, and the servant as his master. If they have called the master of the house Beelzebul, how much more the people Mat_10:24 Mat_10:25   

11 of his house! Fear them not therefore:5 for there is nothing covered, that shall Mat_10:26   

12 Arabic p. 51 not be revealed; nor hid, that shall not be disclosed and published. What I say unto you in the darkness, speak ye in the light; and what ye have told Mat_10:27 Luk_12:3   

13 secretly in the ears in closets, let it be proclaimed on the housetops. I say unto you now, my beloved, Be not agitated at6 those who kill the body, but have no power to Luk_12:4   

14 kill the soul. I will inform you whom ye shall fear: him7 which is able to destroy Luk_10:28   

15 soul and body in hell. Yea, I say unto you, Be afraid of him especially. Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing in a bond?8 and one of them shall not fall on the Luk_12:5 Mat_10:29   

16 ground without your Father. But what concerns you: even the hair of your heads Mat_10:30   

17, 18 also is numbered. Fear not therefore; ye are better than many sparrows. Every man who confesseth me now before men, I also will confess him before my Father Mat_10:31 Mat_10:32   

19 which is in heaven; but whosoever denieth me before men, I also will deny him before my Father which is in heaven. Mat_10:33   

20 Think ye that I am come to cast peace into the earth? I came not to cast peace, Luk_12:51   

21 but to cast dissension. Henceforth there shall be five in one house, three of them Luk_12:52   

22 disagreeing with two, and the two with the three. The father shall become hostile to his son, and the son to his father; and the mother to her daughter, and the daughter to her mother; and the mother in law to her daughter in law, and the daughter Luk_12:53   

23 in law to her mother in law: and a man’s enemies shall be the people of his house. Mat_10:36   

24 Whosoever loveth father or mother better than me is not worthy of me; and whosoever loveth son or daughter more than his love of me is not worthy of me. Mat_10:37   

25 Arabic p. 52 And every one that doth not take his cross and follow me is not worthy of Mat_10:38   

26 me. Whosoever findeth his life9 shall lose it; and whosoever loseth his life9 for my sake shah find it. Mat_10:39   

27 And whosoever receiveth you receiveth me; and whosoever receiveth me re- Mat_10:40   

28 ceiveth him that sent me. And whosoever receiveth a prophet in the name of a prophet shall take10 a prophet’s reward; and whosoever shall receive a righteous man Mat_10:41   

29 in the name of a righteous man shall take10 a righteous man’s reward. And every one that shall give to drink to one of these least ones a drink of water only, in the name of a disciple, verily I say unto you, he shall not lose his reward. Mat_10:42 Mar_9:41   

30 And when Jesus finished charging his twelve disciples, he removed thence to Mat_11:1   

31 teach and preach in their cities. And while they were going in the way they entered into a certain village; and a woman named Martha entertained him in her house. Luk_10:38   

32 And she had a sister named Mary, and she came and sat at the feet of our Lord, Luk_10:39   

33 and heard his sayings. But Martha was disquieted by much serving; and she came and said unto him, My Lord, givest thou no heed that my sister left me alone to Luk_10:40   

34 serve? speak to her that she help me. Jesus answered and said unto her, Martha, Luk_10:41   

35 Martha, thou art solicitous and impatient11 on account of many things: but what is sought is one thing. But Mary hath chosen for herself a good portion, and that which shall not be taken from her. Luk_10:42   

36 And the apostles went forth, and preached to the people that they might repent. Mar_6:12   

37 And they cast out many devils, and anointed many sick with oil, and healed them. Mar_6:13   

38, 39 Arabic p. 53 And the disciples of John told him12 of all these things. And when John heard in the prison of the doings of the Messiah, he called two of his disciples, and sent them to Jesus, and said, Art thou he that cometh, or look we for Luk_7:18 Mat_11:2 Luk_7:19   

40 another? And they came to Jesus, and said unto him, John the Baptist hath sent Luk_7:20   

41 us unto thee, and said. Art thou he that cometh, or look we for another? And in that hour he cured many of diseases, and of plagues of an evil spirit; and he gave sight Luk_7:21   

42 to many blind. Jesus answered and said unto them, Go and tell John everything ye have seen and heard: the blind see, and the lame walk, and the lepers are cleansed, and the blind13 hear, and the dead rise, and the poor have the gospel preached to Luk_7:22   

43 them. And blessed is he who doubteth not in me. Luk_7:23   

44 And when John’s disciples departed, Jesus began to say to the multitudes concerning John, What went ye out into the wilderness to see? a reed shaken with the Luk_7:24   

45 winds? And if not, then what went ye out to see? a man clothed in soft raiment? Behold, they that are in magnificent garments and in voluptuousness are in the abode Luk_7:25   

46 of kings. And if not, then what went ye out to see? a prophet? Yea, I say unto Luk_7:26   

47 you, and more than a prophet. This is he of whom it is written, I am sending my messenger before thy face To prepare the way before thee. Luk_7:27  





1 The word is occasionally used in this sense, but ordinarily means sound, unhurt.

2 From this point down to Mat_10:27, is assigned by Vatican ms. to Mark.

3 Borgian ms. reads, but what ye are granted ye shall speak, and ye shall be given in, etc., and there seems to be a trace of this reading in Ciasca’s text.

4 See note to Section 1, 7815.

5 See note to Section 9, 217.

6 Perhaps, this Arabic word is a copyist’s error for that used a few lines further down in Luk_12:5, the Arabic words being very similar; but see note on Section 1, 142.

7 Syriac

8 The Vatican ms., like the British Museum text of Ibn-at-Tayyib’s Commentary, omits for a farthing, retaining in a bond. The two phrases are simply different explanations of the same Syriac consonants. These are really the naturalised Greek word rendered farthing in English version; but they also form a Syriac word meaning bond.

9 Or, soul.

10 Or, receive.

11 Or, agitated.

12 Lit. And his disciples told John, as in the Greek, etc.

13 A different word from that used in the preceding verse. It is either an Arabic copyist’s error for the word deaf used in Ibn-at-Tayyib’s Commentary, or a careless blunder.



Section XIV.


1 Verily I say unto you, There hath not arisen among those whom women have borne a greater than John the Baptist; but he that is little now in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he. Mat_11:11   

2 Arabic p. 54 And all the people which heard, and the publicans, justified1 God, for Luk_7:29   

3 they had been baptized with the baptism of John. But the Pharisees and the scribes wronged2 the purpose of God in themselves, in that they were not baptized of Luk_7:30   

4 him. And from the days of John the Baptist until now the kingdom of heaven is Mat_11:12   

5 snatched away by violence. The law and the prophets were until John; and after that, the kingdom of God is preached, and all press to enter it: and they that exert them- Luk_16:16 Mat_11:12   

6, 7 selves snatch it away. All the prophets and the law until John prophesied. And if ye Mat_11:13 Mat_11:14   

8 will, then receive it, that he is Elijah, which is to come. Whosoever hath ears that hear Mat_11:15   

9 let him hear. Easier is the perishing of heaven and earth, than the passing away of Luk_16:17   

10 one point of the law. To whom then shall I liken the people of this generation,3 and Luk_7:31   

11 to whom are they like? They are like the children sitting in the market, which call to their companions, and say, We sang to you, and ye danced not; we wailed to you, Luk_7:32   

12 and ye wept not. John the Baptist came neither eating bread nor drinking wine; Luk_7:33   

13 and ye said, He hath demons: and the Son of man came eating and drinking; and ye said, Behold, a gluttonous man, and a drinker of wine, and an associate of pub- Luk_7:34   

14, 15 licans and sinners! And wisdom was justified of all her children. And when he said that, they came to the house. And there gathered unto him again multitudes, Luk_7:35 Mar_3:20 4   

16 so that they found not bread to eat. And while he was casting out a devil which was dumb, when he cast out that devil, that dumb man spake. And the multitudes Luk_11:14   

17 Arabic p. 55 marvelled. And the Pharisees, when they heard, said, This man doth not cast out the devils, except by Beelzebul the chief of the demons, which is in him. Mat_12:24   

18, 19 And others requested of him a sign from heaven, to tempt him. And Jesus knew their thoughts, and said unto them in parables, Every kingdom that withstandeth itself shall become desolate; and every house or city that disagreeth with itself shall not Luk_11:16 Mat_12:25   

20 stand: and if a devil cast out a devil, he withstandeth himself; neither shall he be Mat_12:26   

21 able to stand, but his end shall be. Then how now shall his kingdom stand? for ye Mar_3:26 Mat_12:26   

22 said that I cast out devils by Beelzebul. And if I by Beelzebul cast out the devils, then your children, by what do they cast them out? And for this cause they shall Luk_11:18 Mat_12:27   

23 be judges against you. But if I by the Spirit of God cast out devils, then the king- Mat_12:28   

24 dom of God is come near unto you. Or how can a man enter into the house of a valiant man, and seize his garments,5 if he do not beforehand secure himself6 from Mat_12:29   

25 that valiant man? and then will he cut off7 his house. But when the valiant man is Luk_11:21   

26 armed, guarding his house, his possessions are in peace. But if one come who is more valiant than he, he overcometh him, and taketh his whole armour, on which Luk_11:22   

27 he relieth, and divideth his spoil. Whosoever is not with me is against me; and Luk_11:23   

28 Arabic p. 56 whosoever gathereth not with me scattereth abroad. For this reason I say unto you, that all sins and blasphemies with which men blaspheme shall be forgiven Mar_3:28   

29 them: but whosoever shall blaspheme against the Holy Spirit, there is no Mar_3:29   

30 forgiveness for him for ever, but he is deserving of eternal punishment: because they Mar_3:30   

31 said that he had an unclean spirit. And he said also, Every one that speaketh a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him; but whosoever speaketh against the Holy Spirit, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, nor in the world to Mat_12:32   

32 come. Either ye must make a good tree8 and its fruit good; or ye must make an evil Mat_12:33   

33 tree9 and its fruit evil: for the tree is known by its fruit. Ye children of vipers, how can ye, being evil, speak good things? from the overflowings of the heart the mouth Mat_12:34   

34 speaketh. The good man from the good treasures which are in his heart bringeth forth good things; and the wicked man from the evil treasures which are in his Luk_6:45   

35 heart bringeth forth evils. I say unto you, that every idle word which men shall Mat_12:36   

36 speak, they shall give an answer for in the day of judgement: for by thy sayings thou shalt be justified, and by thy sayings thou shalt be judged. Mat_12:37   

37 And he said to the multitudes, When ye see the clouds appear from the west, Luk_12:54   

38 straightway ye say that there cometh rain; and so it cometh to pass. And when Luk_12:55   

39 the south wind bloweth, ye say that there will be heat; and it cometh to pass. And when the evening is come, ye say, It will be fair weather, for the heaven has become Mat_16:2   

40 Arabic p. 57 red. And in the morning ye say, To-day there will be severe weather, for the redness Of the heaven is paling. Ye hypocrites, ye know to examine the face of the heaven and the earth; but the signs of this time ye know not to discern. Mat_16:3 Mat_16:4 10   

41 Then they brought to him one possessed of a demon, dumb and blind; and he Mat_12:22   

42 healed him, so that the dumb and blind began to speak and see. And all the multitudes wondered, and said, Is this, think you, the son of David? Mat_12:23   

43 And the apostles returned unto Jesus, and told him everything that they had Mar_6:30   

44 done and wrought.11 And he said unto them, Come, let us go into the desert alone, and rest yea little. And many were going and returning, and they had not leisure, not even to eat bread. Mar_6:31   

45 And after that, there came to him one of the Pharisees, and besought him that he would eat bread with him. And he entered into the house of that Pharisee, and Luk_7:36   

46 reclined. And there was in that city a woman that was a sinner; and when she knew that he was sitting in the house of that Pharisee, she took a box of sweet oint- Luk_7:37   

47 ment, and stood behind him, towards his feet, weeping, and began to wet his feet with her tears, and to wipe them with the hair of her head, and to kiss his feet, and Luk_7:38   

48 anoint them with the sweet ointment. And when that12 Pharisee saw it, who invited him, he thought within himself, and said, This man, if he were a prophet, would know who she is and what is her history: for the woman which touched him was a sinner. Luk_7:39  





1 Syriac. In Arabic the word ordinarily means believed.

2 See Section 20, 2811.

3 See Section 1, 4910.

4 And verse 19b.

5 The word used in the Syriac versions Pesh. and Cur. means garments as well as utensils, and the Arabic translator has chosen the wrong meaning cf. Section 42, 44.

6 Certain derivatives from the same root signify bind, but hardly this word.

7 The two Arab. mss. differ in this word, but the meaning is about the same. Perhaps both are corrupt.

8 Or, a tree good.

9 Or, a tree evil.

10 This is reckoned to verse 3 in the Greek.

11 Wrought may have arisen from taught by a transcriptional error transposition of l and m within the Arabic text. As it appears to occur in both mss., they would seem to have a common origin, which, however, can hardly have been the autograph of the translator.

12 A comparison with the Syriac text recommends this rendering.